The results in this study show that the severity of coronary atherosclerosis was very much linked to the concentration of the plasma specific insulin in analysis that was bivariate, but after multiple adjustments the association became insignificant. These findings show a more indirect role played by hyperinsulinemia, where by high insulin levels can lead to adverse changes in the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The twin global epidemic of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes is being driven by the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is roughly estimated to be about 20-25% of the whole population. Those with this syndrome are likely to die from it and also they are three times as likely to get a heart attack or even stroke when compared to those without the syndrome. It is established that about 200 million people in the world have diabetes and that those who will die from cardiovascular disease are 80% of this number. This therefore calls for moral, medical and economic interventions so that people with this syndrome are identified early enough so that appropriate measures are taken to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Fasting insulin level was found to be a metabolic criterion for insulin resistance that can be used in research. To reduce the effects of the obesity epidemic, effective obesity prevention programs should be provided to the populace based on the risks and needs of that population.
This should not just aim at BMI reduction or weight loss but also weight gain prevention. Intervention measures should also include health education, nutritional change, and a reduction in sedentary behavior. It should also be of importance to note that studies have shown that weight loss closely relates to decreased inflammation therefore the cardioprotective effects of many drug regimens are as a result of the improvements in the systemic inflammation which are basically attributed to decrease in inflammatory signaling in the adipocytes. This has given insights into the central role played by the adipose tissue towards the metabolic syndrome. It is also of significance to note that the various clinical trials have shown that intervening in such complex processes without a better understanding can result in unexpected and devastating risks. Medical practitioners should therefore take caution (Berg & Scherer 2005)
A major underlying risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is obesity. Many ASCVD risk factors together with those of type 2 diabetes are associated with it. But it should also be noted that diabetes in itself is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although there appears to be a strong association between ASCVD and obesity, mechanisms underlying their relationship are not well understood by many. This is because obesity has so many metabolic pathways on which it acts and hence produces a wide range of risk factors that are not easy to differentiate. This provides a big challenge for both basic and clinical research. It also increases the possibility for new targets of metabolic syndrome therapy. The challenge therefore is to find ways of intervening at the level of public health to reduce its high prevalence in people. This way, the cardiovascular risks that come with it will be dealt with (Borre, Ertle & Graff 2010)