Concerning this conceptual instrument, Koohlaas ignored the urbanism of space, order and form, and later transformed his designs into the act of discourse into the identity of urbanism. According to Koohlaas, identity is dynamic as opposed to forming. In addition, he stated that identity is unstable and can provide room for transition. Identity can restructure itself in order to address social issues. There are many individuals behind the scene of modern architecture. For instance, Peter Barber’s contributions contributed significantly to urban planning. The architecture earned himself many accolades, especially in the media, for his noble contribution in the modern architectural designs. Barber became influential especially after the design of Villa Anbar in Saudi Arabia. This structure had a design specifically for an independent minded female novelist, during an era in which there was an Islamic separation between men and women. The later achievement of Barber in architecture was in Britain. The contributions he made were after taking a crusade on gender issues to divide classes and social groups in Europe. He put in place a design that would separate the, private domestic, environment from the public urban environment. In addition, he also embraced the challenge of bringing forward a sense of street culture within the architectural realm. The main aim was to increase housing density that presently represents the urban regeneration designs. These were affected by the post war planning and traffic inroads. Barber completed one of the most innovative pieces of large-scale housing in Britain for years (Dyckhoff 24).
According to Barber, the main aim of developing modern architectural design is to use the program requirements and conditions of the construction place to have a model of high density that has mixed uses of a building for a compact inner city state. In addition, Barber pointed out the need to conceive a project to reinforce the centrality of urban streets as the primary generator of social, as well as, economic life, and a means of achieving reinvigorate cities. The modern structures should utilize an extensive approach to a physical model making to evaluate the complex housing permutations, and to allow for investigation of construction technologies to meet the design standards and objectives within a tight budget and construction schedule. An example of Barbers work is the design of the Donnybrook Quarter that allowed the design of housing from street inwards to provide for change and user adaptation. The main goal of Barber was to achieve a high-density model of urbanism to provide an increase in street activity, as well as, socio-economic conditions. The intention was to integrate such ideas in an actual design proposal for social housing. Thus, Barber studied a broad range of historical and contemporary precedents. Modern urbanism intends to conceive a new way of looking at sustainable architecture in what is essentially urban instead of technical terms.
In early1990’s, the Urban Taskforce provided recommendations for radical thinking of zoning and policy that provided inconvenient mono-functional neighborhoods. The recommendations included a tax break for development sites, and the introduction of new guidelines for planning that allowed for construction and renewal of estates in a large scale that had never existed since the Post War period. Te program had various merits, such as, having the ability to construct and refurbish numerous urban dwellings. In addition, it also offered opportunities for constructors to create a whole new city quarter. Thus, Barber’s, Donnybrook Quarter is an crucial experiment towards achieving architectural sustainability. The Donnybrook scheme was a better illustration of how Barber re-established urban design to have a close and a direct relationship with urban streets. This is a primary driver in modern urban design. Even though, the technique cannot account for all intended aspects of modern urban design, it is a useful tool in the evaluation of what is the most successful circulation connection required in urban planning to ensure that it fits the urban network effectively. Critical architecture is vital re-establishing a process of design that can accept the benefits of technology, comprising of computer-aided architectural designs with sketches and model making. Donnybrook model emphasized the central importance of physical models in the invention and evolution of innovative, spatial complex architectural designs. Furthermore, the scheme has contributed towards assessments into social consequences of urban living with high density, hence; pursued with the purpose improving sustainability in urban areas.
This design is one of the complex socially challenging architectural designs, with the rationalism used in the bow becoming completely inclusive with physical agreements and offers startling realities of a comprehensive urban change.
The idea of the street as the focal point for social interaction has a long derivation in architectural thought. Koohlaas also included the design of a prototypical modern urban quarter in his later designs. These are modern forms of that function much like those of the past but have slight mutations. There is the need to be realistic and understand what may be in the offing for an architecture’s career. When a project is more complex and public, it becomes more complex for an architect. Thus, the definition of public projects is to express and share cultural values. However, these can be rendered dysfunctional and meaningless if the criticality in architecture is not properly constructed. Therefore, critical architecture within the public realm has become limited to public manipulation. There is a need for change since, in spite of the early promise of urbanism; there has been a problem in inventing and implementing the scale as demanded by apocalyptic demographics. Modernism seeks to transform quality and quality needed to solve social issues. However, what makes the promise of modernism be disconcerting is the persistence of the city’s defiance and apparent vigor, in spite of the failures of agencies to act on it to embody its ideas, strategies, and aesthetics. The failures encountered by professionals outwits all attempts at capturing the city, hence; exhausting all the ambitions for change. Pervasive urbanization has influenced modernization in the urban conditions beyond recognition. The concept of the city no longer in existence since, the concept of the city is distorted beyond precedent based on the outlook, fabrication and rules. The discovery of the virtues of a classical city is a point of no return. This transition from the traditional position to a reduced state of humility is not easy (Dyckhoff 35). There have been arguments of dissatisfaction with the design of the contemporary city due to lack of developments of credible alternatives. The current society has been left with a world with no urbanism, only more architecture. For architecture to be neat, it must define, exclude, limit, and separate itself from the rest. However, neat architecture consumes exploits and exhausts possible potential generated by urbanism. Urbanism has the ability to invent and renew. The demise of urbanism made humanity seek refuge in architecture. New order of urbanism should focus on order of omnipotence and should not be concerned in an orderly arrangement of permanent objects but influenced by potential territories. Urbanism requires newness, redefined as a means to attack architecture. It should invade the trenches and undermine the uncertainties in order to explode its limits. In addition, the new look of urbanization should ridicule its preoccupations associated with matter and substance, and destroy the traditions and do away with impractical practitioners. The failures of urbanization provide an opportunity to invent other concepts of the city (Dyckhoff 34). Thus, critical architecture is more similar to normal architecture, even though it is necessary to discover where the criticality lies. Politics had made architecture neutral and form as progressive.
History of architecture is more than the study of buildings. Architectural history forms part of a social system as well as, cultural values of a society (Dana 21). Through the development of architectural studies, there stands an isolated account of the emergence of a neither subject that is nor reflexive. Since Second World War, there has been considerable change in societal attitudes towards historic architecture and city landscape (Merrick 42). Hence, the threat of what could be lost and the memory of what had already been lost and awareness on the part of the government and society. The public and government should draw attention focused on historic architecture of both the country, as well as, urban landscapes (French 13). Thus, it is important to understand the architecture because it has the potential to influence the way people feel, and help as individuals go about their lives. Architecture can also influence the habitual way of doing certain things (Ballantyne 213). Architecture combines both buildings and culture, hence; giving a meaning to buildings since, they are caught up in people’s ways of life. Thus, architecture should be appreciated as part of human life. Building turn into architecture because they have cultural content (Ballantyne 10), hence; buildings turn into architecture when man feel that he can notice and acknowledge their existence. It is the role of an architect to create institutions such as homes and cities in order to recognize and reflect a paradox concerning architectural self. Hence, it is crucial to reinvent the meaning of site, freed from the historical places and systems of meaning. A focused architect should investigate his or her assumptions that can be defined by a self whose obligation is an expression of traditional values, beliefs, and principles (Merrick 42).
Modern buildings are universally conditioned due to technological advancements that have significantly created urban form that had become extremely limited. These restrictions imposed a distribution of volatile land use planning. This led to limitations in urban design to a level that any intervention could either lead manipulation of elements determined by the imperatives of production. A modern design requires facilitation for marketing, as well as, maintenance of social control. The current, practice of architecture has become increasingly polarized between high-tech approaches that are predicated on the production and provision of a compensatory front, aimed at covering harsh realities of universal system. In order to sustain architecture today, it is necessary if it assumes certain positions that make it distance itself from the myth of enlightenment of progress. In addition, it should distance itself from unrealistic impulses, in order to maintain its architectonic form that existed during the pre-industrial past (Woodman 12). Finally, the contributions of architectural writers used in this study have made a good contribution towards understanding history of architecture and urbanism in the modern world because the concept of new urbanism has been common in ideological and cultural debates about the most appropriate historical pattern in urban and city planning (Woodman 13).