During athletics and other sports skeletal muscles injuries are highly common, they occur either in direct and indirect mechanisms or with marked residual effects. These include physical disability or severe long term painful injuries. Injuries in the skeletal muscles have been identified to with physical disabilities and long term injuries; it has been accounted to constitute 55% of sport injuries. Strains and contusions are the most common muscle lesion, accounting to 90% of all sport injuries. Muscles lesion mechanism is largely divided into direct and indirect trauma. Muscle strains represent the indirect injuries while contusions and lacerations are the main direct injuries.
According to this article, recent management and treatment of muscles has not been found to offer optimal restoration of preinjury condition. However, newly applied biological therapies such as stem cell based therapy and injection of platelet-rich plasma have been found to be so appealing. Some previous studies support injection of PRP in the management of muscles injuries, however, further researches should be done to standardize and ensure safe use of PRP in clinical practice. Studies are also few and inconsistent on stem cell therapy so more studies should be conducted to identify which muscles are involved in muscle regeneration, proliferation, survival and differentiation of muscle cells.
Skeletal muscle injuries have been found to waste time and increased risk of recurrent injury. Due to this, they constitute largely in most health problems experienced by athletes and further financial and economic problems for club owners and sponsors. Biological strategies are the most favorable to deal with skeletal related issue. PRP is so far the most encouraged therapy though further research needs to be done to allow a safe and standardized clinical practice and the role of growth factors and stimulus used in biomaterial to fabricate scafford.
This article attempts to discuss on the main health issues related to anabolic steroid use which is held among the medical community and athletes involved in using ergogenic drugs. Among the main subject the article deals with is the effect of anabolic steroids on bones, muscles and connective tissues. Among the major finding was that use of analogous steroids could lead to tendon raptures, however, more prospective research needs to be done on the effects of steroids on connective tissues in the body. Use of anabolic steroids is associated with elevation of estrogens which in turn result in premature closure of growth plates. Adrogens found in the bones are biphasics meaning they stimulate formation of endochondral bone and then induce growth plate closure at the end of puberty. Mediation of adrogens to act on growth plates is caused by the aromatization to estrogens.
The purpose of the article was neither to condone nor support use of anabolic steroid. Rather, to discuss pertinent medical complication and effects due to use of anabolic steroids and point out that the use of these steroids may impede bone formation or other connective tissues. This article also provides another perspective in light of the fact that many anabolic steroids users do not appear to prioritize the safety hazards or health complications.
Although the medical society has taken a conservative approach in promoting anabolic steroids as part and parcels of a treatment and management plan in fighting diseases involving muscles wasting, Medical community developed substantial knowledge which indicates the probable positive effects of androgen therapy to combat certain diseases.