Self determination theory. This reinforces the intrinsic motivation and its role in encouraging behavior. It however does not depend on the inner motivation solely as the basis for achievement. This is because it of the belief that active stimulation from the external environment is also necessary to encourage self development. Although it’s developed from Abraham Maslow’s theory on hierarchy, it emphasizes on the factors that trigger motivation and advancement which include autonomy or persistence, performance reports and relatedness (Svinicki, 2004).
The theory is necessary in implementing educational policies that favor women since for one to succeed in higher education, one must stand out in a particular field the he/she is interested in to be able to establish the direction they intend to take. Commendations and the feedback from the teaching staff are necessary for the motivation of women in the education field. Positive responses from close references are a great deal of help to women given their vulnerability and the role they play in the society. Notable breakthroughs should be recognized and praised. The educational procedures should be related to the issues that the society faces and the current affairs. It should be able to offer the much needed solutions to these dilemmas like gender based violence, physical and sexual molestation, abuse and discrimination. This can stir one’s passion towards alleviation of these problems through various skills acquired through further studies that include research, advocacy, campaigns, community work, and social support among others.
Goal setting theory. This is a motivational theory that assumes that each individual person has a clearly defined push to attain certain defined goals. When one reaches this end he/she considers it a success and it rewards the efforts that he/she has made to reach it. The probability to reach this goal is determined by three factors; the nearness of the goal, the complexity or difficulty to attain it and the clarity or specificity (Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 2003). An end should be close enough to be achievable in terms of time, and effort. This could explain why it is easy to learn a sport than to understand complicated mathematics. Women who desire to pursue doctorate degree and have completed their first and second degrees find it easier to attain this goal than those who are just completing O levels. This support should be given to those at close proximity with their goals as talent is identified among the young promising ones for sponsorship.
A goal should be simple to attain; not too easy and not too difficult. However, it should offer some challenge to the person pursuing it. This will give some sense of security when one attains it. This would apply to the education of women as it helps them to struggle. Lowering the performance target marks should not be an option that should be embraced as it hands them success on a silver platter (Svinicki, 2004).
A goal should be specific as it should be within the definitions of one’s understanding. This should make it suitable for one to visualize it for example; an individual should be able to understand the efforts that are needed to attain the specific goal like the First Class Honors in the university, or Distinction in diploma.
Unconscious motivation. As much as the desire to attain a specific goal can in itself be a motivator to a person, close attention should be given to the unconscious desire that is not normally outspoken when one speaks of his/her ambitions. The latter has been proved to be a stronger driving force on human behavior than the more genuine desire. Skilled observers may discern the inversion of the intentions of a person towards achievement of a goal. For example, a woman may seek to pursue a political position not because there is something that needs to be addressed in the society but due to an unconscious desire to be heard and respected. Students in campus may go on a riot not because of the lack of peace in the campus or present divisions but it could be because the administrators and the officials do not listen to their pleas (Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 2003).
These unconscious desires are often projected in the forms of positive and genuine goals that are enticing to pursue. The performers of these actions always hide these silent desires and project them in the form of appealing motive. It is evident in the contemporary society especially with the feminism and the women liberation movements. In search for equality, women are seeking to pursue the goals and dreams that men follow after to register their dissatisfaction with the gender discrimination and disparities.
Some of the actions are so automatic that the reasons behind the actions may not be available in a person’s mind. In fact, the desire to have high self esteem may be so crucial and the sense of reason may not sound well which makes one to suppressed and ignored. One may choose to have explanations that can only add up to an obvious defense mechanism. Sometimes it is manifested in the form of failing to accept responsibility for one’s fault and shifting the blame to others. Extreme cases may see people repressing the truth and displaying action that are completely opposite and is often more dangerous. An example is one who shows high regard for the person who makes his/her life hard and cumbersome. These kinds of motivations are dangerous as it causes complexities to the recipients and the individuals involved.
In conclusion, human behaviors should be rational towards a definite goal and not with undefined selfish motives that may result in loss of trust and lack of genuineness in one’s pursuits.