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U.S. Department of Education

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According to the Journal by Harris & Sutton (1986), case study has the reference to research that involves the investigation of a phenomenon by examining a unique set up as an example to demonstrate the subject of the inquiry. Case study research is conducted within specific parameters and location that manifests the characteristics of the subject being investigated (Harris & Sutton, 1986).

This section is based on the identification of as well as a discussion the essential philosophy, the assumptions in addition to the components of case study research, using examples of three articles from peer-reviewed journals that employ case study methods in an educational setting. Philosophical and practical considerations that might lead to the choice of case study method in a study of universities with high degree completion rates among minority doctoral students have been discussed.

In educational set up case studies are in high utilization since most people learn using demonstrations. When students are given a case example of successful people who have applied time tested methods and have used them to pass examinations or to be effective in the academic set up, they are encouraged and motivated to make attempts towards emulating them.

Case studies are useful when investigating a characteristic that is emanating or uncommon in a set up for example, the causes of conflicts among students can be looked into through the examination of places where students have had conflicts, unrest or demonstrations as a way of finding out the reasons behind such actions and relating to the set up in question.

Case studies are often used as the field of research especially when the subject being investigated is relatively new. This is seen as successful when the aspect is being experienced by a smaller group of people exposed to it and when attempting to find out the effects it might have on the rest of the population, for instance, the use of mobile phone to access the internet among students of a campus can only be investigated when one selects a particular institutions where students have been observed to use them. The findings of such research may help in predicting the trend in the youths of a country who may begin using them.

The journal by U.S. Department of Education. (1988) addresses the issues of the yhe institutions that employ case study research use the research instruments that suit the environment that is being investigated. For instance, in most of the universities the post graduate students form a minority group in the institution. Therefore investigations that one desires to undertake may employ survey techniques to investigate behavioral trends of the undergraduate majority in relation to the post graduate minorities (U.S. Department of Education, 1988)

This therefore leads us to conclude that case studies operated on the assumption that the settings of the study field and the base of comparison are similar. Case studies as they apply to the educational institutions are successfully used as the settings are similar and the courses are related. Case studies can also be used as means for assessing the variety that exists between certain kinds of set ups based on certain similarities that already exists.

The case studies use probability types of sampling techniques. This makes it to derive its findings from the probability of the phenomenon discovered to be replicated in the other settings. In this case, a study may be out to find out if it is true that minority groups of women doctorate students do not complete their studies. This could be proved false from the case studies done on selected colleges and universities (Huba & Freed, 1999).   

The monthly newsletter of the senate of graduate schools of United States revealed that the trends of the completion and acquisition of doctorate degrees have gone low in the recent years. Some students take as long as two years to complete their post graduate studies. This trend as had been observed in certain universities has prompted the quality of doctoral programmes in these colleges making the analysis to incorporate the length of time that a program should take as well as the rate of completion of the same (U.S. Department of Education, 1988)

There has been an increase in the number of women and other groups that have not registered for these programs over the years which has rendered the parameters for analysis unreliable in drawing conclusions for case studies in the individual universities on the values placed on the professional programmes. The presence of female students in Masters and doctoral programs as well as the international students from all decent are factors that must be put in perspective in determining the findings of case studies on these areas.

More students are estimated to be at a position to interrupt their studies or defer them to other times which makes it complicated to arrive at a probable conclusion regarding the same. This could be due to the susceptibility to giving in to loan debts and various pressures of their lives since they are not supported by the government or sponsored through some loaning system which may make them to cut short their studies (Huba & Freed, 1999).   

This happens mostly to the minority groups like the Latin Americans, Hispanics, and African Americans. The first two receive low rates of scholarships in the United States as compared to the latter group. This is a case study of the Graduate School of United States.

A similar case study was done in the Ithaca College and it was observed according to the sources from the institution that white students graduate at higher rates than those of other decent. This is seen as a common problem that need accurate handling right from the time one is admitted into the college (Huba & Freed, 1999).   

Most minority students do not feel free at these colleges by the virtue of their decent. Efforts to settle this difficulty can be directed towards making these institutions accommodating to these students by creating the space for variety. These institutions are generally considered white and the hindrances to the improvement of graduation rates of minorities include the pre-college preparation, campus environment and financial assistance. Everyone may face these difficulties but the manifestations may be more pronounced on the minorities. It is suggested that the institutions should design programmes that unite the minority groups in the colleges  (U.S. Department of Education, 1988).

Case studies of the downing trends in the graduation among minorities were done in different small-sized colleges across America and the explanations given to justify this vary from one college to the next. Elon College in North Carolina has designed a mechanism that gives early warnings to students who perform below expected standards, mentoring strategies and involvements outside and inside the class like group discussions, internships, voluntary and study abroad opportunities to help in integrating students into the system and eradicating the divisions and alienation. Most of these colleges and institutions give great emphasis to students and thus have undertaken cooperation between students and teaching staff (Harris & Sutton, 1986).

This is a type of search that involves the investigation of a phenomenon by examining a unique set up as an example to demonstrate the subject of the inquiry. Case study research is conducted within specific parameters and location that manifests the characteristics of the subject being investigated (Huba & Freed, 1999).    

In educational set up case studies are in high utilization since most people learn using demonstrations. When students are given a case example of successful people who have applied time tested methods and have used them to pass examinations or to be effective in the academic set up, they are encouraged and motivated to make attempts towards emulating them.

Case studies are useful when investigating a characteristic that is emanating or uncommon in a set up for example, the causes of conflicts among students can be looked into through the examination of places where students have had conflicts, unrest or demonstrations as a way of finding out the reasons behind such actions and relating to the set up in question.

Case studies are often used as the field of research especially when the subject being investigated is relatively new. This is seen as successful when the aspect is being experienced by a smaller group of people exposed to it and when attempting to find out the effects it might have on the rest of the population, for instance, the use of mobile phone to access the internet among students of a campus can only be investigated when one selects a particular institutions where students have been observed to use them. The findings of such research may help in predicting the trend in the youths of a country who may begin using them (Huba & Freed, 1999).   

The institutions that employ case study research use the research instruments that suit the environment that is being investigated. For instance, in most of the universities the post graduate students form a minority group in the institution. Therefore investigations that one desires to undertake may employ survey techniques to investigate behavioral trends of the undergraduate majority in relation to the post graduate minorities.

This therefore leads us to conclude that case studies operated on the assumption that the settings of the study field and the base of comparison are similar. Case studies as they apply to the educational institutions are successfully used as the settings are similar and the courses are related. Case studies can also be used as means for assessing the variety that exists between certain kinds of set ups based on certain similarities that already exists (Harris & Sutton, 1986).

Case studies have the implications of qualitative research whose major focus relates to single individuals, organizations, the events as well as entities. They are applied in the determination of education psychology that relates to the manner in which people acquire knowledge in the context of educational settings. They are also applicable in the determination of the effectiveness of the interventions of education, the psychology that is related to reaching in addition to social psychology as is an example in universities with high degree of completion rates among minority doctoral students (Huba & Freed, 1999).   

Case study relates to a diversity of approaches through which research is usually conducted irrespective of it being in the field of the social sciences or whether it is socially related. It also implies a comprehensive and deep investigation or a study involving single person, a group of people, a particular incident or even a community. It is closely related to the rest of the approaches of conducting an investigation such as the use of the experiments, surveys as well as analysis with regard to the archival information (Harris & Sutton, 1986).

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