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Evidence-Based Practice Paper

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Diabetes is an unremitting malady that affects a lot of people in the developed world. Diabetes occurs when there are high levels of sugar in the blood. This occurs when the body is unable to manufacture adequate levels of insulin. However, diabetes mellitus type two (also referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic problem described by soaring blood sugar in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin shortage. Some of the early symptoms of diabetes include; persistent hunger, deep thirst, fatigue, slow healing of bladder or kidney infections, increased urination, blurry vision, numbness in fingers or toes and erectile dysfunction. Diabetes type two occurs in citizens who are hereditarily predisposed and in people who suffer from the obesity. Research and studies have shown that Type 2 diabetes makes up about ninety percent of cases of diabetes. The other ten percent is due to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. As such, necessary steps must be taken to curb the rising cases of diabetes mellitus type two.

Numerous studies have been carried out in order to examine the link between vitamin D and calcium intake and chance of type 2 diabetes. In 1976, the Nurses’ Health Study followed 83,779 women who had no prior history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer at the baseline for the onset of type 2 diabetes. The participants were assessed for their calcium and vitamin D intake every two to four years. During the twenty years of follow-up, 4,843 incident cases of diabetes of type 2 were documented.

The study began in 1976 when 121,700 nurses, aging 30–55 years and living in eleven states of the United States of America, replied to an initially mailed questionnaire on their lifestyle, medical history and numerous other disease factors. The dietary intake was held by the semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire in 1980, and after that in 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1998 years. The dietary consumptions of calcium, vitamin D and other supplements were counted by multiplying the promptness of the use up of each product item with the content nutrient of each product. Multivitamin intakes were evaluated at the baseline year and every 2 years after. In 1984 the vitamin D supplement use was firstly evaluated. Wholesome consumption of calcium and vitamin D was arrived at by adding the intake from different food to intake from vitamin D, multivitamins and calcium supplements. The vitamin D validity of consumptions has been acknowledged in this cohort as a substitute of the body vitamin D stores. Energy-rich foods are a percentage of total energy gained daily. The consumption of other portions that are linked to complete energy intake (as well as calcium and vitamin D) was attuned for the total energy consumption with regression analysis.

Other non-dietary covariates such as physical activity, body weight, family history of diabetes, alcohol and drug abuse, smoking status, physician-diagnosed hypertension, and high cholesterol were reported on all two-year questionnaires. The women’s body-mass index was computed using data acquired from the 1976 questionnaire. At every two year questionnaire cycle, the women were asked if they had diabetes. Each of the self-reported diabetes diagnosis was followed with a supplemental questionnaire and was sent, asking about symptoms of the diabetes, treatments and diagnostic tests.

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