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Physical Activity and Obesity

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Obesity in adults has become one of the most significant health problems.  Obesity is a condition where the human body contains excess fat that is risky to its health.  There is a clear indication that obesity has replaced most of the top health problems worldwide (World Health Organization, 2000).  According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2008), in the United States approximately 68 % of adults are overweight or obese, with 75 million adult Americans are considered obese.

At the same time, the obesity rates vary throughout the United States.  According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2012), obesity rates are higher for southern states by more than 17% than for northern states where the population is predominantly non-Hispanic and non-African.  Due to the fact that the figures are different, the problem of obesity in adults should be treated with carefully designed instructions oriented for specific locations and groups of people.  It can be concluded that the national mixture of people is the predominant reason for more cases of obesity in adults in the southern states compared to the northern states. The food types, local traditions which focus on those types of dishes that are usually high in calories and fat together with the fact that African and Hispanic population cares less about the healthy way of life and physical activity result in obesity level difference between the states. Moreover, solving the whole problem of obesity may seem too general and not credible enough for instructional design.  But the several aspects of the problem, which involve providing education to people at the early stages of obesity, are crucial.  In this case, the instruction is based on the exploration of the obesity factors and proposing the recommendations as to how the problem can be solved effectively.  This is seen as the aim of instruction in this situation, and the target population involves only those who are at the early stages of obesity and can improve their condition in short period of time after implementation of the instruction.  The instructional intervention may be the best solution in this situation, but it is important to note that instructions in this case only focus on the part of the target population to ensure effectiveness of results.

Need Analysis

The potential need for instruction in case of obesity is clear due to the fact that instructing people to eat healthy food and telling them how the healthy way of life will affect their lifestyle in most cases helps reduce obesity levels. Without the proper knowledge about their health condition and the methods of improving this condition, an individual is more likely to feel lonely and get alienated from people within some time (Dukhovny, 2010).  .  In order to define the necessary population, the results of a simple measurement of body mass index (BMI) can be made.  If this index is more than normal (more than 25), the person falls into a category of obesity at an early stage (between 25 and 30).   The BMI is calculated by dividing the body mass in kilograms by the square of total height in meters. Therefore, this indicates the level of obesity for an individual, but it does not reveal the percentage of body fat. Additionally, the proposed data (the quantity of people with BMI higher than 25) from the two states – New Mexico and Colorado – show that the need in instructions is more apparent in New Mexico than in Colorado (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000).  Education can provide the basic elements for the beginning process of change.  The basic needs of these individuals are to be defined in the scope of their common problem, so that the instruction can help deal with these needs and eliminate the causes of potential threats of obesity in the future.  The needs which drive individuals to handle their obesity problems are (a) the healthy way of life promotion on the media, (b) the desire to look young and beautiful, (c) the need to socialize with other gender, (d) fashion, (e) family influence in some cases, and (f) career development.  In terms of need analysis, the identification of a healthy way of life is to be related to the concept of physical activity, and not solely exercise.  Bouchard argues that there is considerable evidence supporting the significant role of physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of obesity and obesity-related diseases (Bouchard & Katzmarzyk, 2010, p. 7).

Need analysis is an important process when dealing with obesity.  The consequences can be quite unexpected and affect life style or span of individuals.  Due to the fact that the risks with an obese population mean the risks with the diverse social groups, it is important to look at the key critical factors, which can undermine the research.  Chambers mentions that “schools have been forced to sell off playing fields and cut their physical education programs under pressure from the National Curriculum, whilst building car parks for parents running their children to school rather than allowing them to cycle on our lethal roads” (Chambers & Wakley, 2002, p. vi).

Kopleman states that obesity makes a significant impact on the social development of the country.  In fact, obesity-related health care costs are estimated at 1-10% of total healthcare costs, depending on obesity rates of the particular location or social group (Kopleman, Caterson, & Dietz, 2005, p. 3).  Therefore, safety as a need is important in case of obesity.  Other types of needs according to classification include comparative (more typical for women with obesity), felt (caused by media and fashion trends), future (the alienation and fear for future health and life), and critical incident socializing is not a critical incident but death rate based on complications resulting from obesity is a critical incident.

All these needs are to be addressed during the instruction, and the whole setting should be very (a) quiet, (b) motivating, and (c) positive.  Obese people are usually people with no hope and life power Dukhovny (2010) implies, and the primary purpose of instruction in this case of dealing with the above listed needs is to provide these positive feelings.

Target Population

Duchovny states that “from 1987 to 2007, the fraction of adults who were overweight or obese increased from 44 percent to 63 percent of the total population” (Duchovny, 2010, p. 1). Therefore, the target population now reaches more than a hundred million people.  Consequently, data collection may become misleading in the case of instruction.  For this reason, it is proposed to only conduct instruction to people with early stages of obesity that make less than half of this population in large groups of people selected by gender and location  (Crawford, Jerrery, Ball, & Brug, 2010). It is estimated that the people with BMI between 25 and 29 make less than half of the total quantity of obese population in the selected locations. Due to the fact that their obesity level is still within the normal BMI, it is highly possible that these people will change their lifestyle and food habits after instruction. Therefore, obesity levels will be reduced in general.

Cognitive Task Analysis

Teaching Goal

The growing numbers of obesity in adults facilitate the need for educating people with early stages of obesity in order to help them improve their health condition (OECD, 2012).  The teaching goal in this case is not only awareness about obesity, but methods of recovering from obesity and promoting a healthy way of life (World Health Organization, 2000).

Objective 1:

The target audience will provide 80% of necessary knowledge about the methods of recovery from early obesity stage by the end of lecture with 75% accuracy.

Activity 1:

The target audience will attend two-hours lecture about the methods of recovery from early obesity stage.

Objective 2:

The target population will increase 75% of awareness about the implications of obesity and the need to have a healthy lifestyle by the end of October 2013 with 80% accuracy. 

Activity 2:

The target population will have a PowerPoint presentation and 2 YouTube videos focused on the implications of obesity and the need to have healthy lifestyle.

Teaching Procedures

Procedures used within the program include the method of application.  Showing the clear outcome about how the person without obesity looks like is very important to increase motivation among target groups (Bouchard & Katzmarzyk, 2010).  Obesity is primarily a problem of decision-making.  For this reason, the instructor is to be well-informed about obesity and health implications it causes.

The cognitive process led by application will not only increase awareness about the advantages of being healthy and overcome obesity, but will also motivate and encourage people to promote the healthy way of life to others.  The technique of leading by example is the most powerful tool in this case. The obesity problem is in most cases the problem of self-consciousness and self-motivation. Therefore, showing the individuals that by changing their lifestyle habits by a little bit they can achieve great results helps maintain encouragement and motivation. Case study analysis and examples from real life are proposed as techniques for this task. Psychological recovery will follow such process in most cases.  Modification of behaviors will have a long-term impact on individuals (OECD, 2012).

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