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Autism

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Autism is a disease that is usually characterized by impaired communication and social relations and this occurs as a result of a disorder in the development of the neural system. This is also manifested by recurring and restricted behavior is usually low, for instant it is approximated that for every 1000 children, 1 or 2 are affected. . From the cognitive point of view, this disability makes them to be aloof and they often have difficulties in expressing themselves to others unless with special help. From neuropsychological perspectives, it is a disease of neural growth and those infected have problems in their social skills, communication skills and have repetitive and controlled behavior. It is also referred to as a spectrum disorder as the signs ranges from mild learning and social disability to serious harmful problems. Autism is associated with anything that may produce damage to the central nervous system. However there are certain viruses and genetic conditions related with it. This was assumed after analyzing the results of a research carried out and found out that so many families have a number of infected children. It manifests at birth or between birth and the first two and a half years of life.

Etiology  

Kanner in 1943 was the first person to discover and describe Infantile autism .He made conclusion that inborn defects caused autism in infants. Since then research has been done in order to understand the etiology of autisms with most results supporting kanners findings. It’s now believed that prenatal environment and hereditary factor cause autism. According to Cohen-Barron & Bolton (2001) autism is caused by hereditary factors and that children suffering from this disorder produce offspring who end up with autism. Autism is linked with vaccines that children get when they are young, pesticides, and chemicals that lead to defects in birth.                                                        

Signs of Autism in Children                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Autism signs are usually noticed when the child is two years. Characteristics differ in every child although most share common signs. These signs can be grouped in terms of their social skill, behavior and language. Under social skills the child fails to respond to her name, prefers being alone, resists holding and demonstrates poor eye contact. Most children suffering from autism demonstrate the following characteristics in the manner in which they behave: repeat phrases, speak abnormally in their tones and cannot maintain a conversation.lastly, the child is observed to have specific routines .For an example the child develops a specific place where he /she places toys and when this arrangement is changed the child becomes disturbed and irritated (Cohen-Barron & Bolton 2001).  

Symptoms                                                                                                                                              

Core symptoms of autism can be grouped into: one, social relationships and interaction, in which the child is unable to develop friendship with other children, shows no empathy and  do not find any interest in attending parties .Second, Verbal and nonverbal communication where the child shows a delay intalking,shows difficulties in starting a conversation and fail to understand their listeners. For example, the listener may crack a joke intended to create humor but the person with autism may understand him wrongly.Third, the child shows limited interests in play whose symptoms include; stereotyped behaviors which include hand flapping and body rocking, same routines, preoccupation with certain topics and may choose to focus on the wheels of a toy car instead of playing with the toy. 

Children with autism often have difficulties when reading comprehensions. This is as a result of their poorly developed skills in speech (Brill, 2007). Their skills vary from the standards of idea development; some of them find it easier to keep information through the use of pictures. These children suffer from language based learning disabilities that is difficulties in processing spoken languages and hence experience while reading, spelling or writing (Brill, 2007). They mostly have Dyslexia a disorder which results from having trouble with sounds production. 

They are challenged by an executive function disorder, they lack the abilities to strategies a plan and take it through. These functions includes: concentration, flexibility, work organization and monitoring oneself. These children end up being disorganized, have a shorter memory and just rush into things without thinking. Asperser’s Syndrome is a challenge encountered by children who have Autism but have early skills of communicating (Brill, 2007). These Children seem to have obsessive attention in some subjects; they mostly have lengthy monologues on their best subjects without minding presence of anybody. They also not able to read nonverbal cues and hence suffer from emotional problems. 

The Autism infected children suffer from Tourette’s syndrome. This is a movement problem is characterized by a child repeating a word or a group of words and gesturing repeatedly. They also have other neurobehavioral issues like learning difficulties, difficulties in regulating their behaviors and are obsessed by certain subjects. Autistics are challenged by visual spatial learning disorder which causes problems in interpreting information that they see. Although they do not have a problem with their sight their mind is not in a position to translate or organize the information to images. Some people treat them like visually impaired and this is much unfair and makes them so uncomfortable. 

These children often suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Cohen-Barron & Bolton 2001). This is where by the child bears so many problems which interfere with his or her concentration, that is he is unable to complete tasks, interact with others and managing time. The problems related with this disorder includes: inattentiveness, recklessness lack of self conscience and distractibility. They mostly seem to be absentminded and do things without minding the out come. Autism affects motor skills causing physical difficulties to do things.

These children have problems relating or interacting with others. They usually have language delays which makes other typical children seem disinterested with them. As a result the autistic end up having so little chances of getting informal education acquired through social interaction. The issue of failure to relate with others as expected is associated with a disorder known as Autism spectrum Disorder which is characterized by: flapping of arms, rocking of body or wait shifting from foot to foot. 

The education system today is concentrating much on the physical science and ignoring the social part. This is because most of it is assumed to be acquired by socializing with others. Social science should be taught with clinical efficiency so as to explore sensitive issues like conscious and out of attentiveness, attitudes, beliefs and life expectations. Failure to teach sociology in details affects its understanding to the Autistics since they do not interact with the society  For example, when they starts experiencing body changes, they should be aware of them and how to live with these changes.

Some kinds are born and portray a normal growth for the first few years. As life continues some signs of Autism starts showing up, like loss of speech. This is the worst disorder of all because the child may have difficulties adapting to the changes hence the development becomes stunted. Although other changes like keeping to them selves may be automatic, others like learning other modes of communicating may be too difficult. 

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