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Linguistics is a science that studies language, grammar, phonetics, and syntax as well as their structure. Linguistics is composed of various branches such as dialectology, sociolinguistics, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, structural linguistics, and comparative linguistics. In this study, a critical analysis of linguistics will involve the acquisition of first language and cognitive linguistics, the second language classroom and cognitive linguistics, and finally the three analyses of fundamental conceptions in second language acquirements as well as their respective relevance in multilingual contexts.
The focus of the acquisition of first language and cognitive linguistics is the conceptualization and the connotation of child language. This involves word denotation, image schemas, social cognition, culture as well as perspective taking. In addition, the attainment of first language and cognitive linguistics considers the use of grammar in children languages as well as usage-based syntax. Cognitive commitment is the factor that differentiates cognitive linguistics from other approaches to languages of human beings. It is a factor that helps in analyzing cognitive linguistics in relation to cognitive sciences.
To acquire a language a human child is supposed to conceptualize some important factors . First, the infant must conceptualize objects as well as their rational and dynamic aspects of their experience like support, containment, and intimacy. Many children in different languages learn nouns better and earlier than verbs. The reason is that children at their early age mostly refer to concrete objects, which are much easier to understand as compared to actions and processes. The conceptualization of a given word in an adult is different from that of an infant and, therefore, their pronunciation is different. In an analysis, it is evident that children in the second year and third year are able to utter some words. This analysis shows that children learn faster things they can see than the ones that are invisible. During the early stage of learning a language there is no any systematic work on the dimensions of children's metaphors.
In terms of children’s social cognition, their acquisition of language plays a primary role in its foundation. Through a joint interaction between children and grown-ups with non-linguistic devices and symbols they develop the ability to understand the language as well as symbols. This study finds out that it is the skills gained in social cognition that helps infants capture the attention of adult through nonlinguistic means. Along with learning words infants additionally learn how to take a different perceptive. Some languages help children in conceptualizing words. For instance, young Korean- speaking and English speaking children have a different conceptualization, since Korean language uses verbs while English uses prepositions, such as on and in. This study shows that, in some cases, the assertion that nouns play a primary role in language development unlike verbs may not be typical for some languages. During the child-discourse, for instance, verbs in Mayan languages play greater role in communication than nouns.
The most challenging part of child’s language is how they create abstract and complex linguistics in learning their language. Regarding cognitive as well as functional bases, young children’s pre-linguistic understanding is believed to be a slight number of basic experimental divisions in terms of its organization. Based on different languages, this study found out that there is a change within languages and dissimilarities across different languages. This change and variations mostly depend on the efforts of a mother who is ahead of time.
As for usage-based syntax, learning of a given linguistic cannot be only a result of acquisition of a language but also an influence of other people. Thought it is not clear how they do it, children create slots, possibly by observing and creating differences in the speech they hear around them.
The major supposition in the cognitive linguistics is that inspiration of the form is the meaning. In addition, -meaning pairing based on the analyses of cognitive linguistics are the products of how cognition structures the perception. With the help of cognitive linguistics, the teacher is able to disseminate the information. There are three principles involved in using cognitive linguistics in the second language classroom: conceptualization, lexico-grammatical continuum, and embodied learning. The above named principles interact to bring about a certain order in older classroom methods as well as bring new ways of presenting and analyzing the English grammar and lexicon. Grammatical as well as lexical forms should be considered as motivated by meaning. The two are treated as the same semantic continuum. In addition, considering both lexically and grammatically, they are believed to have the same social representation and language mentality. On the ground of a classroom approach, the following premises are set out; an embodied approach, conceptualization as well as an inspired nature of representation of linguistics, the usage of the lexico-grammatical continuum.
Based on the embodied learning principle, the nature of our brain configures the reality we face, supported by the development in anatomical and neurological understanding. For instance, proprioception, which is the study of perception of movements, helps in registering the positions of the body’s limbs in relation to itself. By grasping objects, infants explore the world as well as develop their motor skills. This process develops the infants’ phenomenon image through the actions of the body that help in testing its weight and function. From physical grasping of forms and their movements develops the meaning. Associating locomotion, gestures, and articulation with meaning instills the language with the physical experience of imagery. It is for this reason children build a sequence of mental association about that sensation, when they achieve the upright stance central to human experience. This leads them to establish the image schema. Since the image schema is based on positive feeling, we, therefore, develop a conceptual metaphor. This metaphor is said to be conceptual since it builds our understanding of the desirable and the correct state, hence shaping it from physical knowledge. This study has found out that when we take an examination our language improves the metaphor.
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Concerning imagery of the embodiment and the language learning, this study has found out that the process of teaching a language shows how the meaning has derived from the physical experience in order to enhance its potential to be memorized. The vocabulary can be made more memorable if it is associated with gestures, physical imagery as well as movements. Another way to make the learned language more memorable is by clarifying meanings that do not exist in the first language of students. The clarity can be enhanced through relating to derived activities as well as physical images.
In regard to the actual embodied routines, interactions can involve normal activities done in classrooms. In order to make it understandable, especially to a younger learner, a teacher can relate a conceptualization of a metaphor of an abstract meaning, like gestures and movements. According to the virtual embodied principle, it is presumed that the explanations based on graphics bring out clearer meaning. In addition, more than one meaning can be derived from the visual image, depending on how one interprets it. Taking into consideration lexico-grammatical continuum, a certain expression can be used to refer to human behavior. In such expressions, conventional reference of words is not needed. Conceptualization principle has much significance and, therefore, overlaps other principles. In accordance with the conceptualization principle, a lexical or grammatical category does not refer directly to a certain concept, but rather part a network of related knowledge and meaning that have been built about it.
In regard to the three analyses of fundamental conceptions in second language acquirements as well as their respective relevance to multilingual contexts, this study has analyzed the following; the native speaker, the language learner, and interlanguage. Acquisition takes place not only in leaners’ minds but also in interaction with social context. The primary reason for the introduction of the second language is better regulation of variables that concern the initiation of second language acquisition. In 1990s, the SLA research undergone a shift in terms of its interest from western psychology to theoretical linguistics as a primary discipline that was relevant to grounding theories that were more social.
In reconsidering the three SLA’s fundamental concepts, it was advocated that they were broadened to include cultural and social concepts. In language user versus language learner, Firth and Wagner (1997) presumed that the learners’ view had been reduced, decontextualized mind adopted rules of grammar as well as made use of the learned rules in order to give back a correct grammatical sentence free of errors.