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|← Theory of on Liberty||Procedures in Australia and Germany →|
This article provides a close comparison of environmental policies and politics in Germany, Australia and the United States of America. Environmental policy is a representation of recent developments in the global view. Most industrialized western countries first attained systematic environmental management in the late 60’s and early 70’s. The current level of economic growth has resulted into various emissions which affect greater population. In return to this, public awareness has increased so as to reduce any relevant risks.
First, different types of environmental laws were implemented at different times. In respect to the general environmental law, the United States of America’s, Germany’s and Australia’s laws were developed in 1970, 1976 and 1974 respectively. The water laws in the USA, Germany and Australia were developed in 1972, 1957 and 1970 respectively. The wastes environmental laws were passed in 1965, 1972 and 1970 respectively. Additionally, the air environmental act was passed in 1963, 1973 and 1968 respectively. Finally, the impact statement environmental laws were frmulated in 1973, 1975 and 1969 respectively.
The second mode of comparison is based on the environmental management. In this mode of classification, marginalization of public utility is given more exposition. In the economic point of view, the environmental affairs are considered minor in Germany. In connection to this, the environmental affairs of Germany contribute lesser growth in GDP than Australia and the USA. This is in regard to the fact that Germany’s natural resources have remained indigenous from the onset. Contrary to this, environmental affairs of Australia and the USA are heavily considered. Extensive use of DDT in the United States of America and Germany contradicts that of Australia. In return to DDT usage, Great Lakes fish have been contaminated in the USA and Germany. This contamination basically results from air transport.
The next mode of comparison between the environmental policies of Australia, the USA and Germany is based on standards. The major standards of classifying environment include: product standards, environmental quality standards, process standards as well as biological standards. In the United States of America, biological and environmental standards are highly emphasized in the policies compared to the other two countries. In Australia, product standards are better evident than other standards, while in Germany, process standards of environment dominate.
In terms of response to the environmental problems, in the recent past, Germany’s central government has reluctantly showed up towards seeking a long lasting solution. Instead of streamlining the policy process, the German government has only changed the institutional structure of environmental policies. On the other hand, Australia’s environmental policies depend solely on the political process of other European countries. These countries are specifically referred to as settler capitalists, and generally they are. In comparison to Germany, the current Australia’s environmental policy is well developed. This development is geared towards reversing the effects of colonialism on the environment. The United States of America federal government has used much of its resources to check its environmental stability.