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It is a fact that human communication plays vital role in the development of an intellectual mind and in the transfer of knowledge from one generation to the other. This makes then makes it right to say that human communication between teachers and students and among students is essential in the academic field. Communication is a complex process that requires proper measures to be put in place for it to be effective. There are many barriers that might hinder the process of communication making it ineffective. It is therefore important for the teacher to try and minimize these barriers. Some of the measures that can be taken in an attempt to reduce this interference include ensuring that the teaching room is quiet, speaking out clearly, using terminologies that easily understood by the students and engaging the students through talking during lessons. In any learning section, the room where the learning is taking place is very important in the learning process. The kind of sitting arrangement that the teacher chooses to use during the learning section determines how effective his message is going to be delivered to the students in that some sitting arrangements brings the teacher and the students very close to each other in a way that promotes dialogue between them. The room defines how the message is going to get across, how it will develop among the students and the teacher and how the feedback is going to generated back to the teacher.
Verbal communication is the most used form of communication is faced by several challenges which the teacher need to over come in order to be effective in his communication. Mumbling, swallowing of words, use of monotone, failing to explain technical terms and failure to repeat spoken statements are some of the weaknesses that cause ineffective communication during teaching process.
Skills required for effective communication.
Attentiveness:- It is necessary for a person to show concern for a person he is communicating with.
Composure:- requires that one balances between his goals and those of his fellow friends which ensures that everyone is satisfied
Coordination:- This allows interactions to flow smoothly. It is important to apply nonverbal cues.
Expressiveness:- Made effective by using body language and vocal variations.
This refers to the changes that occur when the child is growing and developing. It has been found out that children learn more quickly during their early years than any other time of their life. During this period, they need love and nurturing which enables them to develop a sense of trust and security which subsequently develops into confidence in later days of the child’s life. A child goes through four stages of learning through his development.
This is the first stage of learning in a child’s life at occurs from his birth to about two years of age. During this stage learning occurs through the five senses. The child achieves this through touching, holding, looking, listening, tasting, feeling and shaking anything that he comes across (Jonassen, et al. 1995). After the child gains the ability to creep, craw and walk, he exends his territory of exploring and he uses both his senses and ability to move around to learn more.
Occur between the age of two and seven. The child engages a lot in learning and acquiring information and tries to use it in solving small problems. During this stage, the child has already learnt how to speak and uses that ability to ask questions which further contributes to his learning. The child at this stage lacks the reasoning ability.
Concrete Operations Period
Occur between the age of seven to eleven. At this stage the child starts to manipulate data mentally. They use the information that they have to define, compare and contrast. The child at this stage is capable of logical thinking and still learns through his senses. A good teacher at this stage should start the lesson at a concrete level moving toward a generalized level.
Formal Operations Period
A Period that begins from the age of eleven: At this stage, the child is able to think in a more abstract form and he does not restrict his thinking to space and time. The child is able to reflect, hypothesize and theorize. At this stage, the child needs to develop cognitive abilities.
Skills necessary to take a child through all the developmental stages.
Ability to detect what a child needs at any developmental stage.
Qualities of a good peer canceller.
Show loving and caring since children at tender ages do well when they are loved and cared for.
The purpose of this in schools is to protect children from mistreatment, preventing impairment of the children’s health or development, ensuring that children grow up in conditions that provide them with safe and effective care and ensuring that children have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully. Safeguarding children in schools also takes care of pupils’ health and safety and bullying. There are some requirements needed to be met under this and they include:- Meeting the pupils medical needs if he has special medical conditions, pupil security while at school, should be safeguarded from drug and substance abuse and any other issue provided by the local authority. It is the responsibility of the local authority, governing bodies in schools and of the proprietors of private schools to ensure that the above mentioned requirements are met and maintained within a school. It is also the responsibility of the head teacher and his staff to ensure that children are safeguarded from all troubles that may face while at school.
Children In Transitions
Transition involves leaving the familiar behind and encountering the unknown. During the process of transition, children faced with challenges which include:- Physical challenges such as new environment, uniforms, rules, food, philosophical challenges such as:- structure of the day, unfamiliar activities, Social challenges such as:- unfamiliar adults, children, unfamiliar words or use of words, unfamiliar working groups. During this process,
managers are also faced with some challenges such as:- working with others to achieve the continuity of learning, coming up with ttransition activities and helping the children to construct their identity and develop resilience. A child is said to have undergone a successful transition when he develops a positive attitude and feeling about the school, creates supportive social ties with teachers and classmates, is happy while in class and is motivated to learn and participate in classroom activities. Social kills, being independent, concentration and good communication skills are some of the desired characteristics that makes a child on transition adopt quickly.
Necessary skills to take students through the Transition stage.
The teacher must have the ability to understand the different behaviours in a child during the transition period.
The teacher should be motivational since children in transitional stage need encouragement to keep on moving.
Friendly character in order to make the children feel that they are cared for.
The school holds a great deal of information regarding students which should be protected from leakages. There exists’ various regulations that govern how this information is managed and shared. Good information storage facilities should therefore be put into use to hold the huge amount of information for each student safely. To avoid creating conflicts as an administrator, it is advisable to respect confidentiality and privacy, make sure you have a basic understanding of the law and always look for advice, have a clear understanding of what you are dealing with, keep proper records for matters of concern and decisions made and if necessary, share information regarding decisions that you have made with parents or guardians of the child.
Skills needed to achieve effective sharing of information.
Confidentiality in that a student is sure that any information regarding him will not leak out.
Good communication skills when addressing people at different capacities.
Skills in good record keeping and management.
Skills in solving problems that might arise.
Ability to pay attention to details.
This refers to a process where by the core school team is brought together with a large group of professionals who work with schools on a regular basis but are not considered as part of the core school team (White, 1997). They may include professionals from medical fields. It has benefits which include:- Offering a supportive forum among staffs and generation of ideas, widening the scope of knowledge out side the school setting, planning for an indivi0duals needs, planning for the diverse range of professionals, reviewing existing plans, developing new approaches, creating an avenue for out-of-school provision, supporting school staff to keep on working with challenging students, assisting in school management programmes, encouraging professionals to respond to the views of the of the young people.
Skills necessary for effective Multi-agency working
Excellent public relation skills
Good interpersonal skills
Excellent communication skills
Ability to solve problems quickly and effectively
Ability to implement the agreed upon plans
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