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In what ways did Pinchot’s concept of conservation contradict and or complement earlier approaches to human interactions with non-human nature through the management of natural resources?
Pinchot’s concept of conservation complements earlier approaches to human interaction with non-human culture through management of natural resources. He argues that the conservation began with forestry. This is a complement as forestry ensured that there was increased number of trees that were planted as a conservation measure (Wister, 1902). He states that there were well governed forest services whose main purpose was to ensure that forests were conserved. Conservation of natural resources was felt in different directions. As a result, vigor in conservation of the natural resources led to effective interaction between human and non-human nature. Notably, forestry had been practiced in United States long before conservation movements began. This facilitated conservation of natural resources in United States.
How the creation of national parks redefined landscapes according to a particular ideal of “wilderness.” Reflecting on your own definition of “squatter,” how did the creation of national parks redefine the activities of humans who used these landscapes? What did “wilderness” include and exclude?
Creation of national parks re-defined the landscapes to a particular ideal of “wilderness” in the following manner: firstly, it removed the awe and dismal that people had concerning the landscape. In deed, redefinition of the landscapes resulted in pleasure to those who were in the landscape (Alfred, 1987). Creation of national parks also shed the light for civilization. Mankind was able to rediscover their primitive social lives and embrace democratic institutions. In addition, religious redemption was experienced as a result of creation of these national parks facilitating national renew.
Creation of national parks redefined the activities of humankind who used the landscape in various ways. Firstly, national parks were a great relief to people who were staying in the landscapes (Wister, 1902). They could practice their activities without fear of attack as it was the cases before the creation of national parks were created. Therefore, mankind started to build settlement in the midst of the park. As a result people started to celebrate the beauty of the landscape. Movements were also possible. The writer notes that, “so is breathing the living air, and every movement of limbs is pleasure”. Secondly, civilization spread as a result of creation of national parks. At this particular time, “wilderness” was still considered as sacred. Thus, people had a religious connection between wilderness and biblical stories.
“Wilderness” included some important factors such as the need to protect them, civilization, democratic institutions, and religion among other human values. Nevertheless, “wilderness” did not address solutions to problems that emerged later such as insecurity, agricultural challenges as well as remedies that resulted from civilization of both human and non-human. Thus, the complexities that came with “wilderness” were ignored.
How the story of "Earth Abides" represent nature in the city? How does this representation reflect or contradict the place of urban nature in your own community? Based on what you read in the documents, in what ways has the place of nature changed in cities over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries?
The story of “Earth Abides,” represents the city to show that it is prone to various plaques. Notably, the whole world was infected by an airborne disease that killed everybody except Isherwood Williams. He was determined to rebuild civilization in vain. This representation reflects the place of urban nature in my own community as a city that is exposed to any form of danger. In the world we are living today, human beings have been able to acquire high level of knowledge especially in science (McKibben, 1989). Moreover, people are civilized. Thus, in the case of my urban nature, mankind is using this knowledge to make innovations that are threat to human existence. There is a likelihood of development of a plaque without any warning.
The place of nature has changed in cities over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Civilization has influenced mankind making it possible to change the world. This has led to change in values. However, the main concern of Steward is that civilization has resulted in the death of the earth. He states that, “All during my life Earth Abides has reminded of the crucial nature of civilization, and I’ve worried more about its death than my own” (McKibben, 1989). Nature has changed in great way. Scientific innovations have advanced something that posse a danger to the extinction of mankind. These innovations have fascinatingly observed the facilitated reclamation of civilization. The book explores the possibilities that are likely to occur in future and how they are likely to affect mankind. He depicts a scenario where the world would be without humankind.
George Stewart’s novel, and note how the program represents the relationship between nature and the city: The "Earth Abides"
In the novel, the “Earth Abides”, the program depicts that nature has an absolute control over the city. In this case, the relationship between the two is much dictated by the nature. Steward argues that human beings have no privileged place in nature (Stewart, 169). Moreover, they are not immune to various natures’ population controls that may affect them negatively. For instance, if a certain virus could suddenly infect mankind, it could spread like bush fire without the ability to control it. This will result in death of millions of people world wide.