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1) Explain how alpha blockers are used to treat his condition and describe the therapeutic action of alpha blockers
Drugs that have alpha adrenergic antagonistic effect were initially used exclusively for the treatment of hypertension. However, they have lately become the drugs of choice urinary incontinence due to muscles of the prostate. These drugs relax the prostate smooth muscles thereby, helping in the management of symptoms of the lower urinary tract. The resultant muscular relaxation leads to improved urinary flow which is basically the therapeutic effect of the drugs. However, most of the drugs in this category are short-acting and thus, require constant dozing to maintain the therapeutic levels.
2) Summarize two side effects of alpha blockers and discuss the reasons why side effect may occur with alpha blockers
Alpha-adrenergic blockers have side effects including hypotension as they considerably reduce the blood pressure. This can be in the form of orthostatic hypotension which is a sudden fall in blood pressure on an upright posture thereby, causing a sudden fall. In addition, the drugs cause dizziness, fainting or lightheadedness due to its muscular relaxant effect on the blood vessels of the brain. The side effects are due to the fact that the muscle relaxant activity is not selective to prostatic muscles and may occur in any muscles in the body, thereby causing undesired effects.
B) If the above patient is not hypertensive, then an uroslective drug such as tamsulosin should be considered.
1) Explain the reasons why tamsulosin is used and describe the mechanism of action.
The use of uro-selective drugs like tamulosolin will do away with most of the side effects as the drug will only be effective on the prostatic muscles and not all muscles in the body. The mechanism of action is basically that of smooth muscle relaxation, but is restricted to the prostatic muscles.
2) Summarize two side effects of tamsulosin
The side effects include back pain, dizziness and reduced sexual function.
3) Explain the information that must be given to the patient regarding the use tamsulosin and recommend ways in which the patient could manage his condition and reduce the side effect
The rapid side effects like itching and rash can be managed by administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen while severe side effects like prolonged erection require urgent consultation of a physician.
C) Provide information to the patient to manage his condition effectively.
The patient must be shown the effects of combining the drug with other drugs like Viagra as this would potentiate the side effects.