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Today, people continue to complain of high blood pressure due to various reasons. Adults suffer mostly from periodic or continuous heart fluctuations. In most cases, hypertension is an independent disease or primary hypertension. An increase in pressure develops as a result of diseases of other organs such as lungs, endocrine glands, and kidneys. Untreated hypertension leads to the disruption of the work of many organs and body systems. Moreover, individuals are at a great risk of suffering from myocardial infarction and stroke. In reality, the disease may disrupt the functioning of kidneys, vision, deteriorate the quality of life, reduce operability, and even lead to disability. The paper seeks to explore hypertension, systolic, diastolic, and the normal blood pressure, causes and effects of the condition, steps to control it, appropriate medicine, statistics about the percentage and the situation with hypertension in the United Arab Emirates.
Hypertension is a disease associated with the recurrent or persistent high blood pressure. A healthy person has a normal blood pressure that is below 120 over 80. The pressure rises due to the increase in cardiac output or vascular tone. Kidneys play an important role in their regulation. Hypertension is a dangerous disease that requires treatment and professional medical assistance. Therefore, the cardiologist should examine any person who has health issues to avoid many complications that can accompany hypertension. It is also necessary to carry out regular surveys to get information concerning the state of the heart. Many countries have developed comprehensive national programs to combat hypertension, and many pharmaceutical laboratories are engaged in developing efficient and safe drugs that will help to control blood pressure.
Blood pressure as the important feature of life is the pressure that blood exerts on blood vessel walls. As one of the main and oldest biomarkers, it is characterized by the excess of fluid pressure in the circulatory system over the atmospheric one. While systolic blood pressure is the pressure when the heart beats, diastolic one is te pressure in the blood vessels when the heart rests between beats (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Ideally, people, who seek to be healthy, need to have a blood pressure below 120 over 80.
Genetic predisposition is an important cause of hypertension. Doctors also point out to the impact of environmental factors and lifestyle of individuals. Salt is identified as one of the possible causes of hypertension as the high content of this product in the body leads to the increased pressure. Overweight is one of the predisposing factors. Some scholars support the theory of mental strain that plays a crucial role in the development of hypertension (Townsend, 2008). Sustainable increase in pressure among young people requires physicians to identify causes and treatment of hypertension that is deservedly regarded as one of the most dangerous diseases of humankind. Blood pressure fluctuations affect about 25% of people worldwide, and this rate continues to grow (Chockalingam, Campbell, & Fodor, 2006).
In addition to the already identified causes of hypertension, clinicians also claim that the diseases of internal organs, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of salt, and stress may provoke high blood pressure. The main cause of hypertension is the reduction in the lumen of small vessels that impedes the blood flow. Pressure increases since the heart pushes the blood through the bloodstream. Patients with hypertension suffer from headaches, and pills do not help in this case. Shortness of breath, heart pain, fatigue, insomnia, malaise, and other symptoms are also present. In addition, hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, brain injuries, diseases of the urinary system, and eye diseases. Risk factors are divided into two groups. The first group includes modifiable factors that can be eliminated by the patients themselves or with the help of doctors. These comprise diabetes, high cholesterol, and smoking. The second group includes age and genetic predisposition.
The leading cause of cardiovascular mortality is hypertension, which may not worrry people despite all its dangers. In contrast to the joint disease when a person may attend the doctor and begin treatment immediately, hypertension often goes unnoticed. As an initially hidden disease, in the course of time, it starts to destroy the target organs, namely heart, brain, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels. Individuals often do not understand why their performance worsens, eyesight deteriorates, the emotional irritability emerges, and decrease in intelligence occurs. Subsequent events such as disability, myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and death may occur suddenly.
The higher is the blood pressure, the harder is the work that the heart has to do to maintain a normal blood circulation. Therefore, if hypertension is left untreated, the heart walls thicken or hypertrophy. It also increases the risk of intermittent heart functioning. Then, the heart walls thin that leads to the disruption of the blood supply in the tissues and heart itself. Shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs characterize the health state of a person with hypertension (Townsend, 2008). These symptoms often indicate the development of heart failure that is the inability of the heart muscle to perform its normal functioning of the pump. High pressure accelerates the process known as atherosclerosis.
Clinicians who have identified the steps to control hypertension ask the patient to exclude nervous and physical stress. The most important thing after the stressful situations is to restore the body. Doctors also highlight the necessity to reduce salt consumption. People who often add salt to the food suffer from hypertension more than those who do not abuse it. Clinicians recommend reducing overweight and strengthening the blood vessels that help prevent atherosclerosis. Physicians point out that the calorie-restricted diet reduces the pressure significantly. In order to control hypertension, they also recommend exercising, developing a low-salt diet, limiting intake of animal fats, giving up bad habits, and measuring blood pressure regularly. The non-pharmacological approach is also required.