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There is a commonly known statement ‘History repeats itself.’ If one looks back at the XX century, one will understand that the opposition between the Russian and American worlds never ended. The collapse of the Soviet Union created a pause in this confrontation, but, nowadays, the whole world observes its new format. To analyze the new international order, it is important to consider the events of the old Cold War.
After the World War II and Hitler’s surrender, the Cold War began as a long-term battle between the Soviet Union and the United States. The Germany’s aggression in 1941 made the USSR the adherent of the Western countries. However, the post-war period has made them oppose because of different viewpoints on the political life and striving for the new zones of influence. The USSR and the US consequently created their buffer zones and controlled the world through them. It divided the world into two opposite sides. The period of the Cold War was characterized not only by this struggle but also by the effect it had on many other countries, especially in the European continent. It became the main theatre of this confrontation. The conflict on the European continent began since its Western part supported the United States that helped them to begin the integration process. On the other hand, Eastern Europe supported the USSR (Kramer et al., 2015).
The periods for tension in the Cold War were prominent in Greece, China, Korea, and other states. After the World War, the Communists in Greece started violent conflictswith the government forces that were receiving financial and military aid from the Great Britain and the USA. It was a prominent tension period because the Communist revolt in Greece caused more than 50 000 human deaths (Kalinovsky & Daigle, 2014).
Greece was the only country from the Balkan states that resisted the Communist propaganda. Additionally, Greece was a state of the prime importance from the strategic and economic viewpoints and prevented the Soviet domination. It also protected oil supplies from in Middle East (Kuniholm, 2014). These were the main reasons of tension in Greece. To prevent the Soviet Union from expanding its influence, the US preserved the independence of Greece and established a national unity government for upcoming economic reforms.
Afterwards, the population of Greece enjoyed the consequences of the Marshall Plan. Consequently, it became a part of the Western economic system, NATO, and the Council of Europe. The second notable event of the Cold War period was a civil war in China. In 1946, the Communists that were led by Mao Tse-tung promised to give lands to the peasants. With the support of the citizens, the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, and Tse-tung became its president. As a result, all the key positions in the government were held by the Communists, and their opponents were executed or arrested. Therefore, the positions of Communist ideology were strengthened, and China became an ally of USSR in some conflicts. However, it did not become a small part of the Soviet bloc (Kalinovsky & Daigle, 2014).
The third prominent period of tension was connected to the Communist troops in North Korea. The military demarcation between the South and North Korea was similar to GDR and FRG in Berlin. The conflicts and invasions near the border marked the beginning of the Korean War. The US government supported the South Korean authorities and was able to benefit from the moment when the delegate from the USSR was absent at a United Nations Security Council meeting. During the meeting, they committed the United Nations to support the South Korea in defending. Sanctions against North Korea were applied according to the collective security principle. In 1950, US naval forces came to the peninsula. Many of the Western European countries were involved in the formation of the international force under US command. On the other hand, North Korea was satisfied with the diplomatic support of the USSR and military aid from China (‘The Cold War’, 2015).
Nevertheless, an outright war was never triggered between the USSR and the US. Indeed, it gave rise to regional conflicts just like in the modern time. The Donbass conflict in Ukraine, the Crimea annexation, and Syrian conflicts prove the beginning of the new Cold War, although the armies of the Russian Federation and the US do not battle directly with each other. These two powerful states antagonize through political maneuvering, espionage, military coalition, economic aid, and propaganda (‘The Cold War’, 2015).
Different agreements of the Cold War period are available for everyone in the XXI century. The Yalta Conference was the first meeting after the World War II to establish the international order and discuss it in details. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill came to the Crimea and settled the questions of concern. Particularly, Roosevelt was concerned about the cooperation with Stalin, as well as Churchill was afraid of the Soviet power. Their purpose was to prevent the spread of the Red Army’s influence in the Central Europe (‘The Cold War’, 2015). Their fears were reasonable because the Soviet troops at that time had reached the European center. First of all, the three leaders agreed on the occupation of Germany, which had to be divided into four parts. The next prominent agreement was made at the Potsdam Conference of 1945. However, neither the promises made in Potsdam nor those at the Yalta Conference managed to keep the post-war balance of powers. The intervening period significantly influenced the world. At that time, Japan resisted US bomb attacks. Then, the US tested its first atomic bomb in New Mexico (‘The Cold War’, 2015).
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The issue of the third parties in the Cold War is significant because all the revolutions or battles were always held in the third countries. The USSR aimed to keep the buffer zones between Western Europe and its borders. Thus, the communist regimes were established in Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Albania, and East Germany. From the other side, the US was concerned with the Communist impact on Italy, France, and Greece. It seemed that the conflict would go beyond the boundaries of Europe. Additionally, the Cold War had its effects on Latin America, Asia, and Africa. There was a struggle to overthrow the colonial regimes, which commonly contributed to Cold War tensions. The brightest example of the third-party involvement is the Cuban resistance movement. Fidel Castro dethroned Fulgencio Batista military dictatorship in 1959. Cuba under the rule of Castro became dependent on USSR’s economic and military dictatorship. It was a dangerous maneuver since the US main rival established its bases just 90 miles away from Florida (Mastny, 2014).
Speaking about the new international order and Medvedev’s claims about the new Cold War, one must keep in mind that there is no longer a bipolar world. There is a multipolar world with the states that have their allies and interests in every part of the globe. The new Cold War will result in the global war, and there is no guarantee that nuclear weapon will not be used. As for the question, whom to blame for the global crisis of international relations, it is of course Russia and its aggressive behavior. Modern relationships between states are regulated by agreements and organizations. However, Russian actions in Ukraine, particularly, are unacceptable.
The tensions between the West and Russia increased in the recent years. In the view of the Western world, Russia’s annexation of the Crimea and massive support of Donbass separatists were the first indications of raising Russian aggression and pretence. Additionally, Russian actions in Syria raise many concerns. Moscow authorities claim to attack terrorists. However, some observers state that Russia aims to prop the Syrian president’s regime. The fact of support of Bashar al-Assad’s actions and attacks against his people makes other countries reconsider their attitude towards the Russian strategy. At the previous Munich Security Conference, Philip Breedlove, the supreme commander Europe of NATO, told, “ Russia is not just trying to change the rules but rewrite them.” (Lucas, 2014). This country’s behaviour indicates its desire to extend the spheres of influence as well as the violent methods of its realization.
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On 2 December 1971, the United Arab Emirates was established as an independent state. The review of the foreign policy of the United Arab Emirates since its establishment shows that certain issues remain significant up to date. From the regional point of view, a small part belonged to the region of the Persian Gulf. From the beginning, stability and political safety were the most important components of the international relations of the United Arab Emirates. During the four-decades period, the United Arab Emirates succeeded in remaining isolated from the external influence, significant political changes in the region, and armed conflicts. At the same time, the emergence of the multipolar world, changes in the global political arena, and disappearance of the USSR have had a direct impact on the appeal of this state and power distribution in the region. In response to these changes, the peculiarities of the United Arab Emirates interests of the foreign policy in the area have also changed (Hellyer, 2008).
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A sequence of events explains how the country has a stable leadership from 1971. When the United Arab Emirates was established, its idea of the international relations was limited to the Gulf and Arab regions. However, year after year, its political horizons extended. As a result, by 2000, the UAE projected the prosecution of its political interests more than it had been predicted several years before. The reason for that effective diplomatic relations is that the UAE does not just make its claims and lead discources. In most cases, the country is ready to take up concrete measures and be effective in solving issues. This ability creates additional advantages on the international arena and gains a broad support to its different situations on critical regional problems.
The Middle East is an important strategic element in the world’s political arena. Since the end of the 19th century and before World War I, the question of the partition of the past Ottoman Empire was the most significant problem in the relations between the European powers. If the competition of the great powerful states had an uncertain influence on the course of social revolution in the Middle East, the conflicts in on this territory played the key role in the development of the Soviet-American relations. The right powers and pro-Israeli adherents were involved in the war in October 1973. In 1979, the Soviet invasion into Afghanistan only confirmed the Soviet expansionism. All of these actions were aimed at impressing the United States (Haliday, 2015).
In the late 80’s, the new situation has developed. At that moment, three regional conflicts became an integral part of negotiations on the Soviet-American relations, as well as the East - West ones. These were the Iran-Iraqi war, Arab-Israeli conflict, and the war in Afghanistan, where Iran played the autonomous counterrevolutionary role(Castellano, 2007). Thus, both the USSR and the USA interfered with the state. Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Israel had strong interests in the Iran-Iraqi war. Iran, using its power in Lebanon, had a direct influence on the Arab-Israeli question (Castellano, 2007).
Additionally, the Palestinian issue remains one of the major international problems of the modern time being an arena of a serious conflict between the greatest world powers. The issues of religion, race, and safety are still central in the conflict, which also has economic and cultural aspects. These main religious distinctions give rise to the conflict and fights for Palestine through many centuries
Nearly 10 percent of fuel and oil world export belongs to the UAE. The United Arab Emirates is an important supplier to the global energy markets. As a main part of the country’s economy, oil export makes about 30% of the net gross domestic product of the United Arab Emirates. In addition to being a major supplier of energy, the United Arab Emirates is considered to be a thrifty consumer of energy, as well. The country has a reputation of the responsible power preserver. It develops additional hydrocarbon reserves and actively promotes the development of alternative energy sources.
The United Arab Emirates welcomes private investments into research and development of the sector of investigation of oil and gas production. Abu Dhabi was the only member of OPEC not to nationalize stocks of foreign investors in a wave of nationalization, which captured the global oil and gas industry in the mid-seventies. It continues benefitting from high levels of investments into the private sector. Today, the international oil companies from France, the USA, Great Britain, Japan, and other countries continue to keep the integrated action from 40 percent to 100 percent in extensive oil concessions of Abu Dhabi.
Eventually, speaking about the Middle East, it is vital to mention the third-world movement. After World War II, Paris became the initial point where the movement began. Consequently, France started colonial wars to hold its control over Vietnam, Madagascar, and Algeria. In 1952, the Parisian journalist mentioned that the third world was one of the most efficient movements in the course of preparation of the global fight against colonialism (Heller, 2009).
In Bandung, in 1955, the leaders of the movement declared the intention to avoid taking part in the confrontation of the Cold War to the East and the West, demanding the international disarmament. Additionally, the United Nationswas gaining influence on the international arena. Continental Conference attributed to the issue of Vietnamese revolution in Havana confirmed the need for the disarmament of many countries. Thus, during these decisive years of the movement, the third world has developed the main political program based on the values of the state sovereignty, disarmament, economic integrity, and cultural diversity (Heller, 2009). However, there were several attributes of the final failure of the movement of the third world as it lacked the prospect of unity. Its leaders believed that, in the fight against colonialism and imperialism, the unity of social forces and political parties was necessary.However, they were unable to provide this unity. Instead of galvanizing workers and peasants against owners, they suppressed these forces on behalf of the development. Its authorities ignored the fact that Cuba did not make that mistake. Cuba maintained basic commitment to the idea of class fight and a socialist revolution as a key to the development of the person.
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Eventually, the United Arab Emirates stay one of the strongest states. Since its establishment as an independent one, stability was declared among its most important goals. Its international reputation is quite positive, thus, the help from the other states in its regional issues is plausible in the future. Nowadays, the UAE stays a key participant of political life, and it is impossible to overestimate its role in all global conflicts.