Free «In-Depth Exploration and Organizational Behavior» UK Essay Sample

In-Depth Exploration and Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior as a discipline aims at investigating individual groups and their structure within an organization. This concept refers to developing knowledge that assists institution’s human resources (HR) departments in effective employee management. Organizational behaviors and leadership are often studied together. Analysis of in-depth exploration and organizational behavior helps in understanding the internal orientations of the workplace because the improved performance and success of a company are highly dependent on individual HR behaviors.

1: Individual Behavior and Personality

Personality is a combination of individual habits, emotional patterns, and cognitions which evolve from biological sources and are nurtured within the environment. Personality identifies the characters and qualities to form a person’s identity. Learning and inheritance influence personality traits. Inherited characters are considered to be obtained from the parents whereas the learned characteristics include such features as perceptions and value attitudes. They are acquired through observations and learning (Dingemanse, Kazem, Réale, & Wright, 2010). Five dominant personality traits categorize individuals per extrovert, neurotic, agreeable open, and conscientious ones. According to Bandura, for an individual to replicate a behavior that is agreeable, they must involve their intellectual processes, namely, this shows that the environment influences a person’s behavior. Therefore, personality depends on several factors shaped from biology through the environment.

In addition, individuals can showcase different behaviors depending on the environment. Behaviors in the workplace can be different from those at home. Behaviors in the workplace can assist the employer to improve their job task, improve interpersonal communication, and improve the interpersonal relationship. Individuals within the workplace environment exercise controlled behaviors that improve task-focused performance and assist in achievement of the organizational goals (Ajzen, 2005). There is also the willingness to be helpful and cooperative beyond the requirement of the job duties. The counterproductive behaviors are common in the workplace as well. Such behaviors are considered personal and voluntarily while can harm the completion of the tasks and low performance. Maintaining adequate and considerate behaviors in the workplace create long-term healthy relationship among the organization’s people element. Although most individuals will show different behaviors depending on their current environment, the workplace requires adequate and considerate behaviors that improve relationship, hence, performance.

2: Emotional Intelligence and Individual Behavior

Rational thinking depends on the emotional state of an individual. The theory of social intelligence explains the ability to manage and understand people who are required to act responsibly within human relations (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011). Two types of intelligence exist. First, it is the intellective emotional intelligence and second one relates to the non-intellective intelligence. In practice, emotional intelligence tends to explain how individual acts in a global capacity of individuals to deal with their environment effectively. The reference to the environment ascertains that humans interact with the emotionally intelligent leaders. In this way, the emotional state of an individual or an employee will have different task outcomes.

Three models describe the acquisition of emotional intelligence. The first tool is the trait model that encompasses the self-perceived abilities that are measured through a report. The second one is the mixed model as a combination of trait and ability that defines the emotional intelligence as the characteristics and the skills that push the leadership performance (Brackett et al., 2011). The third framework is the ability model that emphases the ability of individuals to develop emotional information to be used to steer the social environment. Emotional intelligence can be the major factor in stress management (Carmeli & Josman, 2006). It contributes to the ability to be able to maintain an individual’s performance and helps in building an organization that has an effective leadership. People said with a high emotional intelligence are perceived as having these characteristics. They feel more satisfied in their place of work, work harder than the others, adapt to changes with ease. Additionally, they are team players, who demonstrate ethical behavior and organizational citizenship, are more positive when it comes to changes in the organization, and can work in diverse workplace environment under any circumstance. Emotional intelligence can be learned depending on the qualities of the person.

3: Motivation and Performance

Performance is a function of relations amongst employee’s motivation and offering in the workplace environment. Adequate employee motivation would lead to improved performance (Cerasoli, Nicklin, & Ford, 2014). Motivation can be defined as the aspiration of achieving a particular goal and performing to a certain level. However, motivation is not sufficient as the only function for improved performance. Other elements include possession of the required skills and willingness to use innovation in completing tasks. Environmental factors, such as having information, availability of resources and the support that employees need, are also essential in determining the performance (Cerasoli et al., 2014). Such factors have substantial influence on improved performance. For instance, for an employee working at a hotel, motivation might be the most significant factor that determines their performance outcomes. Therefore, job performance is highly dependent on employee motivation and workplace offering.

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Motivation does not guarantee high performance. This concept might not be the main reason why people are performing, but it is considered a key influence on the levels of performance. For organizational progress, motivation and performance are the key to achieving performance goals. Motivation can be intrinsic, which involves feelings of achievement and satisfaction, or extrinsic that involves the attainment of goals, punishment, rewards, and motivations (Cerasoli et al., 2014). One of the issues linked to disruption of the psychological contract between the organization and employees leads to reduced motivation among employees. The organization, through its HR department, can plan a solution to address the employee’s needs and raise their motivation for people who require high-level motivators to perform better.

  4: Motivation, Social Context, and Goal Setting

Goal setting is the development of a plan to motivate a group or a person to help them attain specific corporate objectives. Various rules act as guidance for setting the corporate goals. Goal commitment becomes important when people are dealing with complex tasks (Gomez, 2012). Goal setting theory has been the most utilized theory that brings motivation to the organizations. The theory asserts that employees who lack the commitment often have low motivation, hence, face difficulties in reaching their goals. In this regard, goal setting technique is used to motivate the employees to complete work efficiently and effectively. It leads to better performance by increased motivation and efforts. It improves the quality of the feedback. Participation in goal setting is acceptable, and employees’ mandatory inclusion supports the human resources to attaining the organizational objectives.

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The benefits offered by the social learning and goal setting theory are achieved when people learn through observing behavior. When people observe outcomes that are positive, they are more likely to get an influence (Lunenburg, 2011). They are motivated to imitate the behaviors of their leaders if those are influential. Setting goals will change people’s behaviors so that they can work towards realizing their achievements (Herman, & Chiu, 2014). They predict the possibility of the people in working towards accomplishing their goals. The goals create focus among employees who are likely to expand their efforts. Effective strategies related to HR efforts may be used to accomplish the set goals. The various mechanisms that are used include direct attention, energizing, task persistence, and effective strategies. People observe behaviors from others and learn to conform to acceptable behavior while enhancing the social learning.

5: Needs Satisfaction and Job Motivation

The HR elements in the workplace have different needs. The needs satisfaction relies on assessing the high self-actualization and employee autonomy. The differences in need satisfaction rely on differences in patterns of individual employee needs (Johnston & Finney, 2010). Within the workplace, jobs that appear complex discourage particular needs satisfaction, even though such jobs associate with the leadership roles. Most often, employee needs focus on increased self-actualization, high self-esteem, and increased autonomy within the workplace environment (Johnston & Finney, 2010). When employees demand the needs satisfaction, employers should restrain from increasing the higher order of job tasks. The needs satisfaction is positively correlated with employee motivation. Within the workplace, the HRM should create substantial resources to help satisfy the different employee needs.

Job satisfaction demonstrates the positive emotional results following the performance appraisal experience. Job satisfaction comprises of various facets that include pay, recognition, adequate employee management, safe workplace environment, suitable working conditions, promotions and job tasks (Yücel, 2012). Employees require the development of positive attitude and emotional disposition experience while completing their work duties to report the positive job satisfaction (Yücel, 2012). Job satisfaction is a demonstration of favorable feelings if the job has a positive experience and unfavorable feelings if the job relates to a negative experience among employers.

Several factors impact job satisfaction within the workplace. These factors are not limited to pay, promotional opportunities, relationship with workmates, job security, fringe employee benefits, and safe workplace environment (Yücel, 2012). The purpose of ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs helps in eliminating HR costs associated with reducing absences, conflicts, job errors, and employee turnover. Several factors for employee motivation are considered satisfiers which are likely to improve job satisfaction among workers.

6: National and Organizational Values and Culture

National culture relates to the values that differentiate between good and evil, normal and abnormal, rational and irrational behaviors among individuals. People learn national cultural values, but changes within the population occur slowly over generations. The organizational culture includes guidelines that are rooted in the organizational practices. Employees learn corporate culture in the workplace since its culture and values define each organization and no two organizations would have the same culture or value (Naor, Linderman, & Schroeder, 2010). Each organization would develop a unique culture and values that employees must learn. Characteristics of both national and organizational cultures and values are the changes that take time. These changes are often perceived with difficulties in establishing the new system for learning the national culture. 

            Several factors influence national and organizational changes in the scope of the culture and values. The economic background plays a critical role in changing institution’s culture and values. The national and organizational levels succumb the economic turmoil and global economic and political volatility. The same institutions benefit from a wide variety opportunities, which are likely to present from economic and political development (Naor et al.,  2010). When challenges and opportunities are present, national and organizational level institutions tend to change the culture and values to adopt the changes with the aim of improved performance. Both national and organization levels learn from priorities where institutions at these levels encourage their employees to change behaviors to reflect the new changes in the culture and values. For these changes, leadership traits are critical at all levels of institutions. An appropriate set of the cultural environment is considered as wholly developed cultures and values for economic progress.


7: Organizations, Work Processes, and People

Organizations, work processes, and people relate to practices that aim at influencing the culture within institutions. Organizations hold people in the form of employees who are assigned responsibilities of completing duties (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The duties involve the valued work processes that enhance organizational performance. Organizations choose to develop structures that arrange resources that serve the organization’s mission and objectives. The problem-solving activities among organizations develop contingencies that are essential to organizational performance (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The essential characteristics of the organizational effectiveness include sustainability in performance accomplished in light of the mission and objectives. The organization’s competencies reflect on the system’s resource approaches that focus on the inputs, internal processes, transformation processes, and resource outputs.  

The work process is a relationship of group tasks that create output results from input resources. The work process must employ resources to create value for the customers and create values for the investors (Zitter & Hoeve, 2012). The work process is a set of activities linked to producing services or products. Within organizations, the work processes involve a combination of people, tools, resources, materials, techniques, and improvements, which are designed to allow a series of improvements defined by steps and actions (Zitter & Hoeve, 2012). Depending on the industry, the need for improving the work process requires re-engineering the core processes that will enable employees and the organization to realize the improved performance.

The people element within organizations is concerned with employees who perform various duties. The people element is a critical HR that collects, allocates, transfers, and assigns different resources to different outputs. The people elements do only complete tasks, but organizations must focus on maintaining these individuals in the workplace through adequate HRM procedures (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The latter include hiring and recruiting competent employees with sufficient skills to turn input resources into both profitability and institutional value.

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8: Power and Influence

            Power is a vital aspect every manager of an organization should have for the accomplishment of the set goals in any institution. Therefore, without power, the manager cannot achieve a significant change in the organization. Managers of any entity should have the skill and use it if they want to assume effective leadership roles. Organizational leaders must have the power to influence, direct and make a decision within an institution.

Within an organization, there are five proposed sources of powers. They include a legitimate authority that involves a person’s character to influence the behavior of other people in the organization. The second power is reward power, which is the ability of a person of a high rank in the entity to provide all the requirements to the people they are leading (Kollenscher, Eden, Ronen, & Farjoun, 2017). Reward power usually leads to increased production of an organization. There is coerce power, which is an approach to developing a threat or punishing to some workers. Reward power is helpful to the manager since the employees will be careful to make avoidable mistakes. Expert power is the ultimate knowledge the leader in any organization possesses. Expert power shows how competent a leader is in their working areas. In a situation where a manager is seen to be well informed the more they receive respect and influence. Such leaders have adequacy in commanding their employers who efficiently accomplish each goal that these leaders set. Referent power is considered here as the last source of power. The referent power relates to the ability to influence employees when they emulate what the manager does. Therefore, any individual in an organization with power can influence others. For instance, they can change as well as modify some employee characters, mainly through both referent and legitimate authority (Simon, 2013). Those in a leadership position of an entity can use the leadership power they have so that they can manipulate others and at the end, they can achieve their set goals. For an individual to exert more influence to other people, they must have a source of power.

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To conclude, the analysis of in–depth exploration and organizational behavior demonstrated how several theories explain the relationship between individual HR elements and productivities. Organizational behavior theories can be used independently or in combination, but their overall purpose is to assist in understanding the internal orientations of the workplace because the success and improved performance of the company depend on individual HR behaviors.


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