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The long-term health and success of a company hinges on the recruitment and retention of talented employees. To a large extent, aspect such as organizational performance, customer satisfaction, and effective succession planning are reliant on the capacity of the company to recruit, develop, and retain talented employees (Regis, 2008). As such, turnover is sometimes considered a management failure, either because the executive fails to generate a productive working environment or because the organization hired the wrong person in the first place.
Recruitment represents the process of attracting, screening, and choosing qualified personnel for the company to consider when filling job vacancies. Employee retention represents a systematic effort by employers to generate and foster an environment that encourages current employs to remain with the company. Employee loyalty strategies reinforce the capacity of businesses to attract and retain their workforce (Dhar, 2008). Indeed, an organization’s competitive advantage remains in its people. Consequently, a company must invest in ways to make employees better and competent. Retention is enhanced when employees access competitive rewards (compensation, variable pay, value supporting activities), enjoy a supportive work culture, and develop and advance a work/life balance. The current paper analyzes how the recruitment and retention programs must be created and implemented to facilitate the organization’s success.
The process of recruiting and retaining employees is a matter of concern for most organizations and needs urgent attention. The centrality of talent management originates from the broadly shared belief that human resources are the company’s primary source of competitive advantage. Indeed, a firm’s operational and financial performance hinges on the quality of the recruiting and retention program. Hence, companies must create and execute suitable recruitment and retention programs so as to save money and enhance the organization’s performance through the hiring of individuals with appropriate skills. Companies that lack a process to attract, recruit, or retain talented employees risk losing billions of dollars, their productivity and have unwanted turnover. According to Jackson, Schuler, & Werner, the replacement of an hourly employee roughly costs a company $2,000-$11,000, which dwarfs the $40,000 costs of replacement of a manager (2012).
A review of related literature widely shows that successful companies share a fundamental philosophy of valuing and investing in the employees, as well as retaining talented employees. In some instances, the way that staff treats customers mirrors the handling of the personnel by the organization. The available literature reinforces the hypothesis that multiple factors influence the recruitment and retention of employees (Das & Baruah, 2013). Employee retention remains one of the most imperative goals for the company since the hiring of qualified candidates counts as only half the job done. Indeed, the retention of workers is more important than hiring given that the orientation and training of new staff demands an investment of significant amounts of resources. Research studies indicate that the cost of replacing employees is almost twice the employee’s annual salary (Jackson, Schuler, & Werner, 2012; Oladapo, 2014).
Turnover rates are higher when employees are trained to be multi-skilled, which implies that some forms of training improve the chances of workers finding work elsewhere. On average, job training has significant impact on mobility, but its influence over turnover remains mixed. Employees with elevated career commitment and weak organizational commitment tend to leave because they do not believe that the company can meet their professional needs or goals (Dias, 2011). High career committers constantly mull over leaving the company owing to the absence of professional development opportunities in the organization.
Employee turnover impairs the overall productivity of the organization and is usually a symptom of other structural failures in the organization. High turnover rates occur in workplaces with weak and inequitable policies on compensation and performance. Low productivity and high turnover stem from job dissatisfaction occasioned by poor organizational fit. Research studies also highlight strong causal links between weak corporate culture and climate and job dissatisfaction, which ultimately yields to turnover (Das & Baruah, 2013).
Largely, job characteristics including repetitiveness, associated danger and challenges, and capacity to elicit a sense of accomplishment influence the attractiveness of a job. Jobs considered unattractive register low rates of employee retention. Additionally, turnover may stem from a misalignment of skills and the job requirements, as well as the absence of chances for career advancement or growth. Turnover may also stem from ineffective leadership, workplace conflict, and a lack of recognition or appreciation at the workplace (Oladapo, 2014). Lastly, the issue arises from insufficient or lackluster training and supervision, and absence of chances for advancement or growth.
Increasingly, the environment, in which organizations operate, is becoming more intricate and dynamic. The high level of competition renders it difficult for businesses to sustain a competitive edge in the long-term. Additionally, employee expectations have been changing in the sense that employees readily seize ownership of their careers. Increasingly, they show less accommodation of conventional structure and are more interested in having challenging and meaningful work environment (Hughes & Rog, 2008).
Organizations can draw linkages between enhanced organizational performance and retention of highly qualified employees. Indeed, talent is a chief source of financial value. Turnover can impair organization’s effectiveness, especially when the loss occurs in key positions occupied by talented employees. Research studies indicate that it can cost between 30-150% of the employee’s yearly salary (Jackson, Schuler, & Werner, 2012). These costs are caused by replacement, lost business opportunities and poor customer service, as well as low morale and productivity.
A strategic plan encompasses several components sensitive to the selection of highly talented and experienced employees. In addition it should set out the rules of getting promotion and recognition, as well as compensation and benefits program. HR specialists must possess the experience of all stages of the recruiting process ranging from selection of candidates to post-hire aspects including employee orientation, training, and retention (Irshad, 2012). The recruitment process, which necessitates development of workplace policies and guidelines, should be diverse and inclusive. The recruiting plan should highlight sourcing channels and build a talent community responsible for setting up pipeline position, attracting talent, and nurturing the newly hired employees (Dhar, 2008). The strategic plan should align with the organizational structure, culture, and work environment.
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Recruitment and retention are core elements of talent management. It represents the process by which a company identifies, manages, and develops its employees. Both employee recruitment and retention are strategic tools to guarantee competitive and corporate performance (Regis, 2008). Talent management highlights the means to obtain and retain employees critical to success of the organization. Some of the ingredients of talent management include the following.
Recruitment. The recruitment process features four steps: (a) defining the manpower needs; (b) finding and attracting qualitative candidates; (c) interviewing and selecting the best candidates; and, (d) orientation of the newly chosen employees in the company. Retaining talent starts with the recruitment of the right talent in the first place. Successful talent acquisition process demands that organizations identify potential top performers by appraising the required skills, experience, and fit (Hughes & Rog, 2008). Most importantly, the plan should demand a thorough testing and verification of employee qualification. A layered assessment and selection process can serve to identify the candidates most likely to succeed in the company. Organizations should invest time in building relationships and a database of qualified individuals. The recruiting plan should be business-specific and build a talent community responsible for attracting other talents, and nurturing the newly hired employees (Regis, 2008).
Selection. Recruitment and selection is a core management function since it shapes organizational decisions and strategic direction. It is imperative for a company to ensure that the individuals selected are the right people for the job. Otherwise, poor recruitment would translate into demoralized staff and high turnover rates.
Orientation. Orientation equips employees with knowledge on workplace processes and policies critical to job performance. Line manager should aid the newly employed to attain the expected productivity, which furthers retention and job satisfaction (Das & Baruah, 2013).
Career Development. The strategic plan should illuminate how the organization structures the career progress of the employees. The system of support is intended to aid employees to manage their careers in the organization via promotions, departmental change or internal hiring.
Recognition. It represents the process of motivating and rewarding employees for excellence in advancing the company’s mission and goals with the result of enhanced job performance and staff retention. Mentoring can also boost retention by availing a structured mechanism for establishing strong relationships, and ensuring that the employees’ efforts align with the objectives of the company and satisfy the set expectations.
Training. It represents the improvement of the employees’ knowledge, skills, and experience with the goal of enhancing performance. Training and development strategies provide the personnel with the skills necessary to take on new roles. They also give opportunities to prepare the staff for future posts in the company.
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Supervision. The strategic plan should incorporate supervision as a collaborative process that fosters the company’s goals and aids staff’s professional growth. Some of the issues to address include leadership, coaching, motivation, team building, and communication.
Support. Employee support is critical to staff retention. As such, the organization should aid the employees to minimize stress, frustration, and burnout in the workplace.
Successful companies possess staffing plans grounded on both short- and long-term HR needs (Regis, 2008). Most US companies recognize that employees form a part of the competitive advantage. Every leader in the company (human resource and business managers) must take full responsibility for talent management. Organizations such as Apple, Standard Chartered, and General Electric (GE) have made it the managers’ task to identify and nurture the talent in their areas of responsibility. Companies such as GE have made talent development a significant priority, which explains the decision to establish in-house institutes. The managers are responsible for attracting and selecting talents, directing performance and development, creating an environment that fosters inclusion and diversity, and building a pipeline of industry leaders.
Increasingly, companies are committed to recruiting highly qualified and dedicated individuals, then nurturing and supporting the employees as they move through their career lifecycles. Any strategic approach to recruitment and retention of employees should elucidate on how the organization intends to foster employment eligibility, internal transfers, and promotion and recognition (Irshad, 2012). Strategic approach to implementation of the recruitment and retention program should be simple and straightforward. The HR specialists should be keen on selecting appropriate candidates who are a good fit in terms of skills, qualifications, knowledge and ability (Dhar, 2008). Furthermore, the strategic plan should ensure that the compensation and benefits package correlate with employee’s performance. Some of the components of a HRM plan encompass: (a) determination of company’s human resources needs; (b) establishment of a recruiting strategy; (c) selection of employees; (d) training; (e) determination of compensation; and, (f) performance appraisal.
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Organizations can enhance their capacity to attract, develop, and retain employees by employing a five-step PRIDE process:
One of the core reasons why some employees quit the job stems from poor relationship with the first-line supervisor. Indeed, most supervisors and managers are oblivious to how their actions and decisions shape employee turnover (Cannon & McGee, 2011). They need skills, knowledge, and tools to implement a retention plan that enhances employee engagement. Employee engagement relates to having open communications instigated by both staff and line managers.
Employees quit their position for multiple motives other than pay. All people manifest a fundamental human need to feel recognized and proud of their work, which necessitates the implementation of recognition and incentive programs to satisfy that need.
Employees are more committed and engaged in the job if they can contribute their ideas and suggestions. Employee motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) is pertinent to the enhancement of the employees’ sense of achievement, commitment, satisfaction, and contribution (Cannon & McGee, 2011). Encouraging staff to give its input can send a potent message that the organization is interested in the employees’ success and is supportive of professional growth and development.
Companies should provide career development tools such as self-assessments, and information on internal hiring opportunities (Cannon & McGee, 2011). Every position within the organization should be underpinned by an individual development plan in order to eliminate feelings of employees of being in a dead-end position.
Continuous appraisal and never-ending improvement is critical to gauging the progress and establishing what satisfies and de-satisfies the employees (Cannon & McGee, 2011). The appraisal process should measure attitudes, turnover, morale, and the commitment level of the personnel. The organization should survey the reasons employees join and leave the organization.
Several recommendations can be offered to augment worker recruitment and retention. From the start, the employee compensation should be competitive and equitable in order to retain and attract talented employees from other companies. A review of recruiting and retention practices may be necessary for companies with high turnover and low productivity. It is advisable that organizations begin to measure the cost of turnover and hold managers responsible for retention within their departments.
Companies need to further enhance their culture since it has the potential to retain talented employees, who constitute valuable assets to the company. Supervisors and line managers should establish a culture of expectation and support crucial for professional development of all employees. The professional development process should be tied to the employees’ annual performance evaluation. Organizations experiencing persistent difficulty for certain positions may need to redesign the roles such as modifying working hours and offering training.
Some of the best case scenarios arising from the implementation of recruiting and retention program include low turnover rates. The reduction of turnover rates saves the company money lost in replacement, lost output, and opportunity costs. The strategies to enhance retention and recruitment of talented employees will enhance the quality of new hires and retain talented employees. HR managers must comprehend all of the elements of the business so as to better predict the human capital needs, the training required, and how to equitably compensate the staff (Biro, 2014).
The worst case scenario of the suggested program may arise from the lack of improvements in the quality of employees and managers in the organization. Indeed, a recruiting program does not automatically translate to low turnover since appropriate retention program is equally important. HR planning is most beneficial when sufficient skilled resources are available; otherwise, the approach serves no purpose (Biro, 2014). Moreover, it is difficult to ascertain the future manpower needs of a company since some predictions may go wrong.
In the contemporary global economy, companies must constantly invest in human capital to ensure that the firm persistently attracts, develops, recruits, and retains talents. Effective talent management practices and policies that show dedication to human capital yield to highly engaged employees and reduced turnover. As the “war on talent” persists, it is widely accepted that organizations will continue to face a daunting task of recruiting and retaining talented employees. Retaining key employees is central to the health and profitability of any organization; indeed, effective talent management delivers on the long-term success of an organization. Since the causes of turnover are diverse, unilateral approaches and “one size fits all” approaches to recruitment and retention may not be sufficient and may yield to unintended business consequences. Hence, companies should implement different approaches in order to optimize recruitment and retention.
A strategic plan for recruitment, selection, and retaining employees is a path to improving company performance, especially in light of shifting business drivers. The organization should survey the reasons employees join and leave it. The strategic plan should foster diversity and place high value on aspects such as dignity, individual respect, and professional growth. As such, all employees should be empowered to navigate their own career advancement and be accountable for improving performance and career development.
The implementation of recruitment and retention strategies may help organization to leverage their resources by enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the hiring process. Since the implementation of the recruitment and retention strategies is an intricate endeavor involving multiple stakeholders and projects, accountability is crucial to effective performance measurement. Recognition for employees’ input and outcomes demands further enhancements. As such, organizations need to introduce formal recognition systems such as employee of the year awards or certificate in an effort to improve employee retention. Further research may be needed to examine the relationship between the recruiting and retention strategies and organization performance.