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George W. Bush
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During the era of George W. Bush, a lot of political ambition has taken place. When he got into power, the focus of Bush was to provide an avenue for economic and political prosperity. However, with time because of influences, emanating from both the international politics as well as from his own legal advisors, he adopted policies that suited the conditions of the occasion. For instance, during his era, there was the interplay between realism and liberalism. Realism was manifested at the time, when his concerns leaned more on his quest to acquire the interests of the nation. However, he seemed to choose a different approach, especially after the September 11, 2001 attack. At this time, the interests of the nation were to be abandoned and promoted more for the security of the nation.
Realism is a theory of international relations, which holds the view that the interest of a nation overrides other considerations such as the moral values. Furthermore, actions, undertaken by government leaders, do not take into account the effect that such deeds may have on other sovereign states. They are, therefore, likely to violate the ethical considerations, when pursuing their goals and interests from other states. The idea of realism is closely related to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes of people in a state of nature. They are considered to attempt to gratify their own needs without caring for the other individuals.
It perceives people as fiercely competitive and selfish. People in their quest to accomplish their needs can use all means in order to achieve their desired goals. The international political principles and accountability are less regarded as long, as the interests of a particular country are achieved. International bodies that scrutinize principles of international responsibility and their practices such as the United Nations are regarded less likely from a realist point of view. International politics are dominantly held by the superpowers such as the United States by virtue of their economic as well as military powers. The fundamental goal of the government is survival. Therefore, states usually compete for resources (Bacevich, 2005).
In contrast to the realists, the liberals support the view tht interdependence between two states can bring peace. The actions that the states take on the international stage are largely determined by their culture, economy, ideologies, preferences and other factors. Therefore, those states that share similar topic are expected to help each other at the international level with the idea that both are acceptable or can comfortably benefit from each other. This is in contrast to the realists’ (positivists) view that for one player to win, another player must lose and vice versa (Bacevich, 2005). Liberalism theory assumes that power is not everything; liberalists try to make the world safer and more peaceful through spreading of knowledge, education and development in general to promote harmony among the people. They operate global organizations to promote international cooperation, thus, aiming for independent gain and maximum possible output. It, mainly, focuses on the associations and communications as well as interdependence between countries in terms of supportive state behavior.
U.S.A has been one of the most powerful states in the world alongside the U.S.S.R from the period, starting from the end of the Second World War. This came as a result of the decline of France and Britain as the hegemonic powers in the international politics. U.S.A, to a large extent, has enjoyed dominance since the decline of the U.S.S.R in 1991. Its influence, but not control of other states, has been evident over the past few decades. Political policies have been the greatest impetus in the place of the U.S.A position in international politics.
Every sovereign government must seek to meet the needs of the citizens. It, therefore, demands government leaders to adopt principles and strategies that will eventually serve as a springboard towards the fulfillment of its objectives. U.S.A rule under the leadership of George .W. Bush had to give up with a mechanism of leadership that will benefit the government maintain its affairs. This, to a large degree, will also assist in accomplishing the needs of the people. The decision, however, depends on many factors. First, the government had to consider its role in the international politics, the resources available in other states, dynamics in international goovernment among others. Bush and the top officials had to consider two main options, between applying principles to accomplish their goals or to choose their own mechanisms of acquiring their needs.
The application of principles, which demands that the nation complies with the code of ethics of other states, including respect for their sovereignty, would have been unfavorable to them. For example, principle-oriented proposal would limit U.S.A from achieving their goals in countries, characterized by abuse or neglect of human rights. For example, the strong correlation between Bush administration and oppressive regime in Libya could be viewed as a case where the interests of George .W. Bush overridden the principles of democracy. This would inevitably require the authority to implement integrated principles. Bush regime concurrently applied both realism and liberalism at different times of the period to achieve their goals. The application of Complex Adjustment Systems (CAPs) can be regarded as a practical action that assisted the government.
The application of principles would have meant that those states, which applied extreme ideologies in comparison to that of U.S.A, would have compromised the effort of Bush administration in attaining its interests. Moreover, laissez faire capitalism, as advocated by U.S.A, met a lot of resistance from the competing states. It was perceived to be exploitative in nature. Most of the resources, which are the main objective of most leaders, were concentrated in the Middle East. Appropriate measures needed to be put in place to ensure that the interests of the state were achieved, more so because of the compromised Middle East relationship.
For instance, the administration of George .W. Bush has seen a lot of international politics, taking shape from the influence of the Americans. The analysis of Bush administration will involve looking at the historical events, the relationship that America has had with the external world, opinion from people, military intervention, contemporary events, democratic practices and others. To some of the political analysts, Bush inherited his policies from his predecessors such as Bill Clinton, Reagan.
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