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On the basis of what did Marx foresaw such an international solidarity of the working class?
According to Karl Marx the proletariat which he used to describe the lowest social status of the working class laborers all had certain challenges in common regardless of their separation by geographical borders. One of there qualities that marks saw that proletarians had in common was their inevitable conflict with the capital owners or the bourgeoisie. Their conflict was according to marks likely to arise simply because in order to maximize their earnings the bourgeoisie would be willing to pay the labour classes as little as they could get away with for their labors.
On the other hand the proletariat would be willing to demand as much as they could fro their labour. Marks also foresaw the bourgeoisie using the lower class to fight the monarchies and therefore providing them with the means and weapons to fight their own class that is the bourgeoisie. He also foresaw an increase in the populations of the labour class and their increased exploitation by the upper classes across Europe.
Therefore their struggles would be for fair prices for their labour and against exploitation by the riling classes and the bourgeoisie. This therefore meant that regardless of their geographical separation the lower class would have a common enemy that is the capital owners. According to marks the communist party would which he described as having the immediate mandate of ensuring that the capital was owned by the state and there would be equal opportunities for everyone in society hence eliminate the exploitation of the lower class (Marx & Engels 2009).Would also be a commonality between the lower class regardless of their geographical location.
By the proletariat class therefore joining the communist party everywhere they would be empowered to start successful revolutions across Europe. They would therefore be joined by a common enemy which is the capital owners and the would join the communist parties in their respective states .In other words the working classes would share common challenges and similar ideologies and therefore unit for the purpose of fighting the common enemy. He therefore foresaw the working masses as having no country due to their common characteristics and what he eventually thought would be their growth into a communist society.
How was such solidarity meant to transform the world?
Marx predicted that they revolution would first start in Germany and the rest of Europe would follow. He also though that since the working class were exploited by the capital owners in a similar version regardless of the geographical borders he foresaw their resistance to further exploitations eventually growing into a communist society that had the similar goals of eliminating workers exploitation(Marx & Engels 2009). The similarity in ideologies would thus influence working classes across borders and bring revolutions into the various states. He foresaw the transformation of the various socialist parties into a single communism workers party championing the interest of workers in various countries. This he thought would empower the working class into taking control of the various governments in their own states.
In what way did nationalism prove to be a challenge to Marx’s prediction of a world-wide, united movement of the proletariat?
As long as the proletarians remained proud of their nationality or more appropriately they preferred to respect the own nationalities then it would impossible to have a unified communist movement across borders. Then regardless of the commonalities that they shared they could not be turned into an international proletariat movement. In other words they would rather respect their national identity than the common challenges that they were faced with. Therefore this implies that they would act in the best interest of their country and not for the interest of the international united movement.
According to Marx for a communist movement to grow the lower class would have to unite in to an all powerful movement capable of bring revolutions across states(Marx & Engels 2009). By failing to join into a single powerful communist force the lower class were unable to champion for the common causes as issues of the various nations took precedent over the struggle of workers. The lower classes were therefore divided into less powerful state forces that the bourgeoisie classes were able to divide and defeat from taking over the various governments.
What were some of the problems that nationalism posed to Marx’s theory?
Marx’s theory was mainly based on the conflicts of the working classes versus the interest of the capital owners. Their major strengths according to Marx were as a direct resource of their opposition to the bourgeoisie class making profits from their efforts which they paid lower wages for. This he foresaw as a commonality across borders .He therefore postulated that if all workers through the a common communist party representing the interest of the working class supported the various revolutions in each state that were seeking to empower the oppressed workers then they would be a powerful force.
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But the workers indentifying themselves with their various states the interest of their states came first to the common struggles of the lower class. Nationalism therefore was able to raise other agendas besides defeating the bourgeoisie classes. It is through nationalism therefore that individuals regardless of their class in the various states that they were able to gain a common identification, that is as members of a given country (Duiker & Spielvogel 2008). In other words the working classes and the capital owners under nationalism became one people regardless of their class. This common identity therefore was therefore able to reduce the urgency of the various classes to fight for the resources as differentiated or stratified societies. This prevented the break that Marx predicted was likely to eventually arise between the bourgeoisie and the proletarians.