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This essay investigates the literature available on theories of international interactions. In particular, it elucidates the assumptions that are often made concerning the nature of the world politics, with regards to realism and liberalism theories. According to the essay, structuralism theory has the most appropriate theoretical perspectives that would help in understanding the political changes that have taken place in the last five years in the global arena (Donnelly 2010).
Political realism basically advocates for prioritization of issues of national interest over any other issues. This implies that political players should act with total disregard of ideology, social constraints or moral concerns in pursuing matters of national interest. The problem with this theory has been the fact that national interests are usually drawn by humans, who could actually be pursuing self-interests. In fact, it has been attributed to the insurgence of global terrorism. According to literature available, the Al Qaeda networks, which can be regarded as a “state”, usually act in total disregard of the sanctity of human life as they pursue their state’s interests, to protect Islamism. This certainly reveals the extent of global destruction that can be experienced if this theory were to be fully adopted to the extent that international players can act in total disregard of ethics or morality. Conversely, structuralism advocates for global interactions where different cultures are understood in relation to their relationship with the larger ommunity. Understandably, this means that each state must consider the implications that their individual actions would have on other international players before they can execute them. This assumption of political realism has always caused conflict among states (Penrose 2011).
In addition, such elements of conflict are reinstated by the assumption of the realism theory that the state remains a principal actor that regulates its own interactions. As such, it makes it possible for a state to declare war against another without fear of retribution. According to the United States Security Organ, this could be a recipe for chaos. It is due to this reality that the UN has undertaken to act the role of a superior “state” in regulating the manner in which individual states relate to one another (Donnelly 2010).
Accordingly to the realism theory, the state must exert its superiority by ensuring that they independently relate with other states without any “superior powers” dictating the terms for them. Although this looks unrealistic in the new world, it is very significant, especially with regards to neo-colonization. In particular, this assumption is popular with developing states who often feel that the international community is unduly interested in their national affairs whenever there is an intervention to solve their crises. However, it certainly acts contrary to the structuralism theory that requires that the international community seeks to understand the context of social conflicts in these states before interveniing (Donnelly 2010).
In terms of national security, political realism holds it that states should ideally focus on attaining maximum national resources for them to succeed in their pursuit of national security. Furthermore, the political realism theory emphasizes that individual states must always remain as unitary actors where all participants move forward together in pursuit ideals that are collectively of national interest. However, political structuralism stems from the reasoning that individual states should consider the impacts of their attempts to acquire resources on the global community. For instance, logging could be a profitable venture for most states in the tropics. However, such states should not exploit these resources to the extent that it causes imbalance to the ecosystem, thereby affecting the global community. The only point of agreement between these states is the fact that they both advocate for social organization into units that would give them social identity (Penrose 2011).
In conclusion, structuralism theory best illustrates the recent political developments in the world during the last five years. For instance, the improved dialogue between the West and the East is a clear manifestation that the two regional blocks have begun to look at each other with regards to the roles that each plays in the overall global society. Ideally, they get to learn that the world can only be safe and sustainable when people learn to appreciate and tolerate one another. That is the fundamental idea of political structuralism.