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Christian philosophy is based on the existence of a belief that there is a high universe. This belief in the existence of higher universe is helpful to humans and helps them act accordingly (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). Humans and the higher universe have a communion, and real work done to maintain this communion with the results, being visible to the physical world. According to Quinn and Taliaferro (2000) the higher universe can be defined in several ways, which include cosmic law, emptiness or impersonal power. They argue that the higher universe can be described as “an impersonal power or force”, since Christians consider it to mean God (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). God is omnipresent, his will is omnipotent, and his love for the mankind is unlimited.
In Christianity philosophy, these beliefs are prominent and distinguish Christian philosophy from other philosophies. This philosophy also includes the belief that God through Jesus redeemed the world. Christian religion philosophy has difficulties, explaining the realistic existence of the higher universe and the meaning of religious text (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). In religion, philosophy deals with questions that seek to answer whether God exists, his form and extent of his omnipotent will. Among other divine beliefs and attributes that are present in Christianity, it also seeks to explain properties, attributed to God such as his timelessness, consistency and his miracles. Philosophers seek to explain logically how these attributes can or fail to exist.
Among other difficulties that Christian religion philosophy encounters is the issue of evil. Since God is omnipresent, the question of why he lets evil to exist and destroy the human beings that he unquestionably loves is often an issue among philosophers. Based on the belief that God only seeks the good in the human beings, then, why does evil exist? This question or philosophical argument is not unique to Christianity alone, in other forms of religion the issue also arises. There are also issues that make Christianity doctrine explains God’s grace, justices and love. In Christian theism, God’s salvation has the basis on the historical events and people. In non-Christian theism also such beliefs exist, and they become difficult to accept at their face value (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). Since their existence hinges on historical facts, this renders such beliefs inaccessible. Hence, there are difficulties in merely accepting such beliefs because the generations that hear these facts were not present to experience firsthand what they hear about religion. In other words, faith, rather than logic, forms the basis for Christianity. Similarly, there is difficulty in explaining Christian theism philosophy in such concepts as atonement, incarnation, trinity sin and sanctification.
The Christian theism and other forms of religion systems have unique resources that provide materials for handling problems that may be encountered. In discussing evil, rationality helps to form the assumptions that make the connection between rational agents, rights and obligations that uniquely unite them together. Satisfactory answers to evil problems, derived from its consequences, that link evil to necessities such as pleasure, friendships and knowledge. Quinn and Taliaferro (2000) argue that in pursuit of pleasure, friendships and knowledge people commit evil. Its existence, therefore, can be linked to humans need to pursue satisfaction that can be attained from getting knowledge, experiencing pleasure and in the process of making friends. This implies that although God has the power to stop evil, by giving mankind freedom to pursue happiness in life, evil is inevitable. “God escapes the network of rights and obligations in virtue of his transcendence” (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000).
Christianity theism differs from other forms of the religious system such as Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism or the eastern philosophies in a number of ways. These differences include their main principles, concepts, values and beliefs. In Christianity, the main principle is driven by the Devine element, and a philosophy that fosters the belief that life has a beginning and an end. Buddhism refers to religion and philosophy that includes various norms, beliefs and practices that are found in the teachings from Siddhartha Gautama, referred to Buddha. The eastern philosophies, on the other hand, foster the belief that life is recurrent and it is a journey that leads toward reality beyond human surrounding. The two philosophies also have a different outlook towards the purpose of living (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). The eastern philosophies believe that humans should seek liberation from themselves. While the Christian philosophy, fosters self-dedication with the goal being personal happiness and success. The other difference in the two approaches is what happens around the universe. In eastern philosophies, various events in the world are seen as interconnected as opposed to the Christian view that of unsystematic approach in events. The eastern philosophies are also largely based on the human search for the inner being in order to find the inner peace, while in Christian people search for outer forces.
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The main values in eastern philosophies are the ability to gain control of the inner being for full self-development and happiness. Christianity, on the other hand, encourages achievements and success in faith, careers and wealth among others through outer activities. In Christianity, individualism is the key, while western philosophies foster collectiveness and duty towards the society. They also differ in terms of improvement, where the Christian philosophy towards improvement is in order to achieve goals or in order to succeed, once the goal is reached, improvement is completed (Quinn & Taliaferro, 2000). The Easter philosophies have a cyclic outlook for improvement. It is seen as a continuous process that never ends and is not limited to any goals.
Philosophy in religion seeks to address questions that arise in all forms of religion systems. Fundamental belief in religious systems may differ, but philosophical issues remain largely the same. Therefore, it is not uncommon to encounter similar questions, regarding religious issue. Questions such as whether God exists and the meanings of his existence to humans are often the most common and inevitable, when examining religious systems.