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|← Muslim in the West||Philosophy of Religion →|
The diversity in the national context has been taken into account even though the diversity of European Muslims is in question concerning the status of religion in different societies and the nationality acquiring mode. The acknowledgement of multiculturalism either as present or absent has a specification, which every European country has concerning the characteristics of changes in the Muslim minority formation and the identity construction.
National and regional diversities are larger in the USA with definite implications on the Islamic identities. Unifying cultural elements have taken into account great differences that exist between the USA and Europe in the social secularization of their relationships, since European residents have less valid forms of their social cultural relations based on religion or have a tendency of validating their relations with Muslims (Cesari, 2004). European Muslims never seek reasons among other opportunities to cause the dominance of societal elements.
Multicultural policies of Great Britain impede religious changes in Muslims, while Germany and Austria have motivated the Islamic religion at schools with the goal of transmitting this tradition to be adopted as a minority. The rift of race in the USA has an ideology of multiculturalism, which is among factors that perpetuate the Muslim identity with the ethnicity they belong (Yohannes & Menelik, 2009).
Factors that are responsible in comparison with European ones include: religion organization collective actions, which are socially recognized, and a cultural capital (Cesari, 2004). There is the emergence of Muslims that is beyond ethnical diversity.
Islamic identification appears in most cases whether in Europe or in the USA as an emerging ethnic community. It has been seen as a vital element of the European community before the first immigrant generations, and this is the same fact in the Muslim population, whose racial and ethnicity rifts are increasingly marked in the USA.
Ethnic forms and the notion of the Islamic religion have been developed for decades simultaniously (GhaneaBassiri, 2010). The Muslim generation has been emerging in Britain and considered as ethnic and substantially isolated Islam of immigrants from India and Pakistan.
There is an open dialog with the government, since the emergence of these leaders of religious movements has spread in Europe, and it is characterized as a social phenomenon actualizing reference of Islam to secularized contexts (Cesari, 2004). This has been realized through movements that are contradictory to references of Islam and its increased practices.
There is a comparable process in the USA, since Muslims that have pan-Islamic discourses refuse cultural specifications to the Muslim world. They are in search of a true form of Muslims, in which a cultural value does cohere with that of the U.S. society. The difference between the USA and Europe is a different context of opportunities.
The U.S. approach towards Islam make immigrants who are elite and specialized in national lobbying turn their advantages on the religious value, which are valid with the public debate. This strategy does not mean that their daily identification with Muslims is always put into practice on the basis of pan-Islamic views (Cesari, 2004). The existence of the fourth generation shows that religion is perfectly established in Europe in the countries, in which they reside and are significantly detached from the generation that has been established first.
The gap that exists between Islamic practices and their intellectual discourses must be considered in both cases, since daily practices have a revelation that the secularized context has been cultured.
Cultural practices developing cultures that do not have territories and a racially gender and religion-based community are referred to as globalization. Thus, Islam is a powerful formation gathering together in solidarity various groups that have their constraint separated by different nations and cultures. There has been an attraction by globalized Islamic forms in different parts of the world. These are universal political and religious movements connected with the community of believers (Cesari, 2004).
Divine revealed sources have given rise to an elaborate interpretation of social and political facts in the European context, since it is depicted by the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West, which has a moral interpretation of religious relation to a wide inclusion. There are other forms that do not go beyond the borders of their country or their culture (Geaves, 2004).
Most of these are non-governmental and formed by religious leaders and intellectuals developing the identities that transcend national borders (Cesari, 2004). The achievement of such groups is through the awareness of their cultural identity, the existence of organizations in other countries and the development of relations that encompass political or monetary and religious people in different countries (Al-Azmeh & Fokas, 2007).
The field of international relations of social groups is through the autonomy of the established dynamics, striving to assert themselves as participants that are collective on the international arena. Their private interests pressure them to play roles that has never been intended for them (GhaneaBassiri, 2010).
The interaction of complex local, national and international groups categorizes Muslims in the West with the revelation of the shortfalls of subject scholarship, because of the transnational importance of networks of the western Muslims, and this shows the obligation of the society hosting international influence and not providing a balanced view (Cesari, 2004). The democratic context of Islamic adaptation is a two-side activity that involves the identification of international and transnational Islamic forms and different cultures in host counries.
Social economic situations are fragile for European Muslims, as there is a higher rate of unemployment. There are unequal levels of education and unemployment among Muslim immigrants and those, who are non-Muslims immigrants (Cesari, 2004). In Britain, the level of unemployment is twice higher than that of minority communities regarded as marginalized. This is a margin that is passed to the generation of those born and educated in Great Britain (GhaneaBassiri, 2010). There is no limitation even to jobs requiring basic qualification, since concerns are profiled high in the domain of medicine and education.
There is residential segregation that accompanies social economic marginality, since some studies show that immigrants of the Pakistan origin have a tendency of inhabiting dilapidated and unhealthy housings in Britain and concentrating in poor suburbs.
Political temptations of Europe are based on the association of Islam with poverty and that Islam is a cause of poverty (Yohannes & Menelik, 2009). Muslims have a tendency to use Islam in a reactive way, and this ethnicity becomes a trap between religion ethnicity and poverty.. Thus, this trap has led to the roots of violence and unrest as it is a case in Britain. The report of the research conducted in Britain on December 11, 2011 shows that there is a withdrawal of groups from the society on he basis of the feeling of frustration, poverty and a lack of equal opportunities in all domains of jobs (Cesari, 2004). The segregation of Britain according to race and religion as interlocked factors of predominant racism is responded by the reactive Islamic use. The question that underlies culture, race and religion, is a lack of communication between local ethnic groups and political milieus. This situation is a reminder about black Muslims in the USA, who have used Islam to become elements accenting to separatism.
The interdependence of social problems with Muslims is a reason of success in political scenes, when thematic parties are observed in some European countries. Poverty and Islam collision accentuate the validation of incompatibility between cultures and the threat of Islam in the West (GhaneaBassiri, 2010).
The 9/11 attacks were consequences of stigma accented together with Islam, poverty and terrorism. The attack led to hardening immigration laws in Europe and security, but the consequences of these laws were not witnessed in Europe. However, there is an indication that the use of Islam may be defensive.
There is unprecedented radicalization of Muslims in the USA after the 9/11 attacks connected with the fight against terrorism targeted at immigrants and those of immigrant origin. This has been witnessed on the basis of a number of Muslims that emerge to the limelight and cooperate with other groups in this fight against terrorism and the stigma of stereotyping by non-Muslims (Geaves, 2004).
Challenges of Theological Revival
A religious practice has two paths to follow, that of the USA and that of Europe. It has been noted that the ethnicity of Islam plays greater role in the identity of Muslims than religion does, with some scenarios, when relationships between Muslims lead over that of ethnicity. Muslims are usually involved in searches that take an Arabic form of classical learning. (Al-Azmeh & Fokas, 2007)
This leads to the revelation of divine texts that aid in founding traditions of Islam. There are those that do not practice Islam, but refer to this tradition; since their parents have been Muslims, they do not usually identify themselves with Islam. A form of identification with Islam is a moment of Ritual-like occasions that are usually celebrated on feasts special days (Cesari, 2004). The democratic context of diversification of practices is identified through individualization and secularism, a lack of learning institutions and religious power of authority; these cases that result in the treads of conservative domination of the Muslim world.
Muslims in the USA and Europe have put first the logic of individual indecision-making that fit the needs and rising subjectivity of religious affiliations. They believe that one has to practice a certain religion, since the system of traditions and believes is not enough. Thus, it is best for an individual to practice what religion pleases to be a practicing believer giving personal meaning to messages that are divinely revealed. The resultant distancing of individuals from their families implies that they are not well-acquainted and justifies that even parents do not have clear understanding of the real Islam, and they are only influenced by customs and superstitions of their culture.