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|← Lord and Savior||Globalization of Islam →|
Events have been changed dramatically in the political environment and the wider Muslim world since the 9/11 attacks upon the USA by terrorists. There are substantial differences between Muslims in their view of religion, political and social cultures, their social agenda and violence prosperity. The attack can be seen as the continuation of the revival of Muslim movements, which includes the West struggling to impose the Islamic vision on the Muslim world.
Many Muslims in the West changed their daily lives, since young people confessing the Muslim religion made them to question their tradition to solidify their self-sense. Many parents are afraid of their children’s safety. Many Muslims changed their way of life for a fear of attacks by those, who stereotyped all people belonging to the Muslim religion as being terrorists. The media also played a major role through the misinterpretation of Muslims, which are a minority group in the West. Portraying Muslims was confusing and made many Muslims question of their religion.
Despite the subsequent enduring by Muslims after the 9/11 attacks, it offered a perfect opportunity for their growth and reflection, for it was time to learn more about and come forward to political conscienceless as a community. There is a wide and a neutral environment viewed as a precondition that exists between religion and culture reciprocal in Europe.
Values that were constructed and developed in a fashion that did not depict the religion make Muslims feel uncomfortable. There has been a substantive influence on the American politics and its institutions, where its presence is derived from earlier roots and the constitution amendment. These relations have been weary because of the counter measures of terrorism and the intervention of the USA in the Middle East. The U.S. policies mostly rely on a decision that concerns prisoners rather than the presence of the Islamic community in the country.
There are measures in place in the USA against Muslims caused by the increasing Islam phobia. This paper analyzes thoroughly how Muslims are treated both by Europe and the USA in the dimensions of Islamic narratives, the influence of cultural and political structures in the countries that host them, religion and ethnicity interaction complexities and the influence of Islam worldwide.
The Snare of Exceptionalism
Researches conducted into the snare of exceptionalism have not been avoided by Europe, since a research has come as a result of the Islamic knowledge and the immigration sociology. The primary goal was the integration of Muslims to the European society,and whether it was similar to experiences of other immigrants or there was a new particular thing (Cesari, 2004). The specification of the matter was inclined to the individual’s identity, which had a relation of being a Muslim. Muslim scholars emphasized that it was a matter of norm and value.
The strengthening of Muslims in the context of Europe was caused by the influence of political movements on the local arena without concerns of the cause of proximity and the view of the colonial history (Geaves, 2004). This political will of centralizing the issue of Muslims had consequences of shaping identities of Islam.
Political interests and those of the media in the USA are effects after the 9/11 attack, which have an impact on the upcoming research. Religion has not been seen as a priority of a subject taboo, but the research is dominated by the approach of ethnicity. Considering he Islamic diversification a focus has been laid on the localized ethnic communities, which attract more attention than others (Yohannes & Menelik, 2009).
The European research focuses on the establishment of frameworks that interpret general Islam (Al-Azmeh & Fokas, 2007). They are considered to be a minority in a secularized democracy, which has a decisive element of Muslim practices transformation. It accounts the mode of interactions between the western societies and Muslims, thus leading to understanding Muslim social structures within dialects (GhaneaBassiri, 2010).
There is a necessity to take into account structures and frameworks that have been imposed by the dominant Islamic narrative to study a way, in which Muslims define and experience their identity. The way an individual is viewed by others and the interaction for the formation of identity are important, since Muslims are more well-known than other religions; it is considered that there is no proportion between their interaction and their disclosure imposed on them by Islam, which is widespread in the whole local and international society (GhaneaBassiri, 2010).
A permanent collusion that exists in Islam is a single element shared between the U.S. and European Muslims, as they are seen as a political threat, and those living in democratic societies have been shown by relations treated as hostile reactions in nature after the 9/11 attacks.
The continued movement for correlation of international conditions of those Muslims that live in democratic nations depicted essential approaches towards Islam and Muslims that had been there for centuries during the confrontation of Muslims and Europe (Yohannes & Menelik, 2009). The disclosure was continued confrontation between Muslims and the West, which views them as being a primary obstacle to modernization.
Thus, the pressure mounted on Muslims after the 9/11 is enormous, since there is no ethnicity or religion that has means to escape stereotyping, when facing other groups. Specific opinions that regard Islam are the following: historical moments, by which these representation networks have been given meanings both at the local and international levels, and the strengthening of stereotypes revolving around Islam by traditional scholars.
It is remarkably noted that, since the 80s, there has been a consideration that the Islamic community in fact is a factor of risk to international relationships legitimized by the perception of it for many centuries (Cesari, 2004). The recurring of this attribute is usually activated and reformulated by international changes and domestic circumstances, since it is seen that interpreting Islam as a risk factor is a result of the 9/11 attack (Geaves, 2004).
These contexts make it possible to construct the identities of the Islamic community, since there is an interstitial space existing between the representation and the actual presence of the whole community. This is a gap, which results in appearing of specific Muslims (Geaves, 2004).
This gap requires thorough consideration to get an answer of Islam as such. There may be situations when a dominating party and a dominated one tend to have consequences, when there may be a possibility of scenarios of acceptance avoidance and resistance. These attitudes increase discourses and actions connected with the name of Islam (Al-Azmeh & Fokas, 2007). Thus, the acceptance of discourses is accompanied by the cultural amnesia to get assimilated to definite will, and this is less for immigrant Muslims.
Avoidance is a behavioral trait that attempts to separate Muslims as much as possible from non-Muslims by the development of Islamic religious beliefs. Resistance is a refusal of the status accorded without dominant disclosures and politics, and this is never violent as it is the involvement of dominant narratives and the production of apologetic literature about Islam.
Certain forms of resistance practices involve the use of certain Islamic symbols that are mostly linked with dress and their behavior, characterized by a tendency to instill fear and repulsion on others. It can also take more radical form by the attraction of violent Islamic movements (Cesari, 2004). There are some positive forms to resistance, which are seen as appropriate to Islamic practice elements that rely on the Islamic faith.