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1. According to the Hajj essay, the five Pillars of Islam are:
2. Gai Eaton speaks of Islam’s “primodiality”.
Islam claims to be the religion with the final answers in revelation as well as primodiality. They assert that the truth that was in the beginning prevails and will remain. This returns man to the condition of primodiality (al-fitrah) and appeals to the primordial nature in us. This makes each person a priest in both cultures and makes him free to engage in ritual prayers before God without going through any man (Eaton 1995).
3. “Ihran,” clothing its appearance and significance.
The garments are worn as a symbol; of the equality of the humans in addition to their unity with God and it is therefore vital for a similarity in wearing for all pilgrims
Generally the pilgrimage begins with the donning of the white seamless garment (Irham), worn that is symbolic to the robe that was worn by the Abraham of the Bible. It is what men wear as women on the other hand wear traditional hijab. This is an identification of the world, the race, the nationality as well as the status
4. Gai Eaton tells us that when the pilgrim to Mecca sets out for the Ka’bah in Mecca, he is essentially “coming home.”
Just as Quran meets science, Islam and Science and Quran meeting modern science the pilgrim is symbolic of the freedom similar to those felt by a patriot coming home (Eaton 1995).
5. Meaning and purpose of the “tawaf,” the circumambulation of the Ka’bah. Othewise known as Al-Tahiyyah is when one first enters Mecca and is therefore called Sunnah at this stage. If cleansed before Mina then it is performed concurrently or else it will drop and Faffarah will be needless (Eaton 1995).
6. Significance, including some of the legends, of the Black Stone which is embedded in one corner of the Ka’bah.
Located in the South East corner of Ka’ba in Mecca, it is of significance as it is the central shrine object of Islam. Being the famous of all fetishes of Arabia, it was and is still in structure B a rectangular in shape (Eaton 1995).
7. The second rite of the pilgrimage to Mecca is the “S’ay.”
Members of a religious group who take part in a pilgrimage (pilgrims) make a journey in search of moral significance which is sometimes to a shrine of importance to a person’s beliefs (Eaton 1995).
8. Once the “S’ay” is completed, the pilgrim goes on an “Umra,” to Mount Arafat, where the pilgrimage to Mecca reaches its climax.
Umra, the lesser pilgrimage, is a visit to the Ka’ba. Most Muslims perform the Umra alongside the Hajj although the former can occur at any time of the year. Inside the ihram the Tawaaf is performed by circling the Ka’ba in the anticlockwise direction seven times. At this time, the pilgrim offers prayers and performs certain acts. One then goes to the well of Zamzam and drinks (Eaton 1995).This is a representation of the dedication of the people in hostile climates of risks and diseases
9. The “standing” at Arafat, there is a ritual sacrifice of animals. Explain its meaning.
During the early hours of ninth, there is an en mass movement by the pilgrims from Mina to Arafat plain for "the Standing," as a culmination of pilgrimage. The simple ceremony is marked by the gathering on plains of the pilgrims as they face Mecca in meditation and player. Most of the pilgrims stand in a literal essence for most of the time (Eaton 1995).
10. Stoning of the pillars at Mina.
The stoning in form of a ritual of the pillars took place in tent city in Mina was the scene associated stampedes in addition to most of the deaths in which case, the pilgrims went through a crammed full restricted access area going to small pillars on ground (Eaton 1995).